Mineral fertilizers

Mineral fertilizers (as industrial poisons) - chemicals used in agriculture to improve the fertility of the soil. All mineral fertilizers depending on the content of the main nutrients are divided into phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium. Also, are complex mineral fertilizer, containing a complex of nutrients. Feedstock for the most common mineral fertilizers (super phosphate, nitrate, sylvinite, attocube and others) are natural phosphates (apatites and phosphorites), potassium salt, mineral acids, ammonia, soda and other Technological processes of manufacture of mineral fertilizers of various, often used the way of decomposition of phosphorus-containing raw materials of mineral acids.
The main occupational hazards in the production of mineral fertilizers are high dust content air and pollution his gases. Dust and gases contain fluorine and its compounds, phosphoric acid, salts of nitric acid and other chemical compounds, which is the industrial poisons (see industrial Poisons).
All of the substances included in the composition of mineral fertilizers are the most toxic compounds of fluorine (see), phosphorus (see) and nitrogen (see). Inhalation of dust containing mineral fertilizers, leads to the development of catarrhs, rhinitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, of pneumoconiosis (see). With prolonged contact with the dust of mineral fertilizers possible chronic intoxication, mainly as a result of the influence of fluorine and its compounds (see Fluorosis). The group nitrogen and complex mineral fertilizers can have a harmful effect on the human body due to methaemoglobinaemia (see Nitrate). The measures for prevention of occupational diseases and the improvement of working conditions in the production of mineral fertilizers are sealing dusty processes, device rational ventilation system (General and local), mechanization and automation of most labour-intensive production stages.
Great hygienic importance personal prevention measures. All working at the enterprises for manufacture of mineral fertilizers should be provided with protective clothing. When the works, accompanied by a large selection of dust, use overalls (GOST 6027-61 and GOST 6811 - 61). It is mandatory dust removal and decontamination of working clothes.
An important activity is the use of anti-dust respirators ("Petal",-2K and others) and protective glasses. For protection of the skin should use protective ointments, pastes (IER-2, Chumakova, Selitskogo and others) and indifferent creams and ointments (silicone cream, lanolin, petrolatum, and others). Personal prevention measures also include daily washing in the shower, thorough hand washing and rinsing the mouth before eating.
Working in the production of mineral fertilizers should at least twice a year to pass a medical examination with the participation of therapist, neurologist, otolaryngologist and obligatory x-ray examination of the skeletal system.

Mineral fertilizers and chemical substances introduced into the soil with the purpose of getting high and stable yields. Depending on the content of the main nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) are divided into nitrogen, phosphate and potash fertilizers.
Raw material for production of mineral fertilizers are phosphates (apatites and phosphorites), potassium salt, mineral acids (sulfuric, nitric, phosphoric, nitric oxides, ammonia, etc., the Main harm as in the production, and transport and application of M. at. agriculture is the dust. The impact of this dust on the body, the degree of hazard depends on the chemical composition of fertilizers and their aggregate state. Working with liquid M. at. (liquid ammonia, ammonia water, ammanati and others) is, in addition, with the release of harmful gases.
Toxic dust phosphate raw materials and the finished product depends on the type mineral fertilizers and determined their parts compounds of fluorine (see) in the form of salts and hydrofluoric kremneftoristogo-hydrogen acids, compounds of phosphorus (see) in the form of neutral salts of phosphoric acid, nitrogen compounds (see) in the form of salts of nitric and nitrous acids, compounds of silicon (see) in the form of silicon dioxide in the bound state. The greatest danger compounds of fluorine, which in different types of phosphate raw materials and M. at. contains from 1.5 to 3.2%. The dust of phosphate raw materials and M. at. can cause in working catarrhs, rhinitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, pneumoconiosis etc. caused mainly irritating dust. Local irritating effect dust depends mainly on the presence in it of salts of alkaline metals. With prolonged contact with dust M. at. possible chronic intoxication of an organism, mostly from exposure to fluorine compounds (see Fluorosis). Along with fluorophenyl action group nitrogen and complex M. at. has methemoglobinuri effect (see Nitrate), which is caused by the presence in its composition of salts of nitric and nitrous acids.
During manufacture, transport and use M. at. in agriculture it is necessary to observe safety measures. In the production of M. at. implement a system of dust events: a) seal and aspiration of dust-forming equipment; b) dust free cleaning of the premises; C) cleaning of air from dust extracted by mechanical ventilation, before its discharge into the atmosphere. Industry produces mineral fertilizers in granular form, in containers, bags, etc. It also prevents the intense dust generation during the use of fertilizers. For respiratory protection from dust used respirators (see), clothing (see Clothes, Glasses). It is advisable to use protective ointments, Nast (Selitskogo, IER-2, Chumakova, and others) and indifferent creams (lanolin, petrolatum, and others), which protects the skin running. During operation it is recommended not to smoke, before receiving food and water should rinse mouth thoroughly. After work it is necessary to take a shower. In the diet should be enough vitamins.
Working people must at least twice a year to pass medical examination with obligatory x-ray bone system and chest.