Mineral water

Mineral water, natural water containing salt, gases, organic matter, unlike drinking water, in higher concentrations, or with specific physical and other properties - temperature, content of biologically active components (CO2, H2S, As, and others), radioactivity , and so on - and which consequently therapeutic effect for exterior and internal application.
Mineralization (total dissolved in 1 liter of water chemicals) there are mineral water is slightly mineralized (1-2 g/l), low mineralization (2-5 g/l), medium (5-15 g/l), high (15 - 35 g/l), brine (35-150 g/l) and firmly brine (more than 150 g/l).
It is considered suitable for internal use of mineral waters with mineralization from 2 to 20 g/L.
By ion composition of mineral water can be chloride (Cl), hydrocarbon (NSO3), sulphate (SO4) sodium (Na), calcium (CA), magnesium (Mg).
The presence of specific components of mineral water are divided into carbonate, sulphide (hydrogen sulphide), nitrogen, siliceous, bromine, iodine, iron, arsenic, radioactive (radon), and other
In the USSR adopted the following indicators of the concentration of specific components to include water sources to mineral (medicinal).
There are mineral water cold - 20 degrees, warm - 20-35°, hot (thermal) - 35-42°, very hot (high thermal) - above 42 degrees.

Components The lower limit (g/l)
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Hydrogen sulfide (General H2S)
Bromine (Br)
Iodine (I)
Iron (Fe)
Arsenic (As)
Silicic acid(H2SiO3)
Radon (Rn)

5 MMK·Curie/l, or 14% Mahe

Reaction of water (degree of acidity or alkalinity expressed by pH) is important to evaluate its therapeutic actions. Acidic mineral water has a pH of 3.5-6,8, neutral -6,8-7,2, alkaline -7,2-8.5 and above.
For the abbreviated designation of mineral water chemical composition apply the formula proposed by M. G. Kulovym and E. E. Carstens. Currently, this formula recommended in the following form: biologically active components (g/l); salinity (g/l); the composition of the waters: the anion/cation equiv%); pH; T degrees.
Example. The chemical composition of Lermontov's source in Pyatigorsk:
Read this formula as follows: carbon dioxide hydrogen sulfide chloride-hydrocarbonate-sulphate sodium-calcium high thermal water with a salinity of 5.3 g/l, pH = 6.5 and temperature 46,6 degrees.
The mineral waters have a natural (keys, springs) and artificial outputs deduced on a surface of the earth by means of boreholes, shafts, adits. For balneological purposes and bottling use only mineral water from wells, providing a constant flow rate, chemical composition and guarantees of water from pollution. For protection of mineral water resources from exhaustion and pollution set the zone of sanitary protection (see Resorts).
For accumulation, storage, transport and use of mineral waters have the appropriate balneolechenie device: captai, nadkaptazhni facilities and Christmas trees, drilling wells, reservoirs, pipelines, and private buildings, drinking gallery and pump rooms (for internal use of mineral waters), devices for heating and cooling of mineral waters.
Internal use (drinking) mineral waters practiced in non-resort atmosphere. In these cases, using imported mineral water (bottled). The filling of these waters is carried out on special plants and shops of the enterprises of food industry. For bottling mineral water in bottles is used about 150 mineral springs with production of over 1 billion bottles a year. Poured in bottles of water saturated with carbon dioxide to the concentration of 3-4%, which improves its taste qualities and stable chemical composition. The water in the bottle should be colorless, odorless or not peculiar taste, to save bottles recommended in the supine position. The effectiveness of non-resort treatment of mineral waters (at home, in the local sanatorium, hospital, polyclinic) is greatly enhanced if it is combined with certain regime, diet and other therapeutic measures (physiotherapy, medication, hormone therapy, and so on).
There are curative mineral water, medicinal drinking and dining. Among the purely curative mineral waters are batalinskaya (laxative) with predominance of sodium sulfate and magnesium, water with a high content of chloride calcium (lugalla), with relatively high mineralization (Novo-Izhevsk, Essentuki # 4 and 17). Indications and methods of their application are the same as in resorts (see Resorts). Table mineral water - usually small mineralization (Narzan, Yessentuki №20) - use without any evidence.
Artificial mineral water is produced from chemically pure salts. In the USSR of artificial mineral waters in hospitals, clinics and local health centers made carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, oxygen, sodium chloride tub (see). Indications for use - see Balneotherapy and Hydrotherapy.

Mineral water, natural water containing high concentration of those or other mineral (much less organic components and (or) having some physical properties (radioactivity, pH), thanks to which they therapeutic.
Detailed hydro-geological study of the USSR and the increasing depth of drilling wells in recent decades has led to that for therapeutic purposes is used more and more underground Mineral waters of various chemical composition. Surface M. century (salt water) is used for medicinal purposes mostly on the southern mud cure resorts the USSR.
Criteria for evaluation of mineral waters. M. century have on the human therapeutic action of the whole complex of diluted substances, and the presence of specific biologically active components (CO2, H2S, As, and others) and special properties often determines the methods of their therapeutic use. As the main criteria for evaluation of medicinal M. century in Soviet balneology accepted features of their chemical composition and physical properties, which serve as important indicators for their classification.
1. Gas composition. When the unit and the designation of mineral water on the gas composition consider gases contained in quantities of more than 10% vol. all gases present in the waters dissolved and spontaneous state (and in the absence of the latter - only dissolved). The main types M. century by gas composition: nitrogen, methane, carbon dioxide (and hydrogen, nitrogen and hydrogen sulphide methane).
2. The degree of saturation, i.e. the total content of gases (in ml) in 1 liter of water, depends on the composition of gases dissolved in water, and can vary from a few dozen ml to 1,000-1,500 ml or more. Is particularly important in the assessment of acidulous waters.
3. The ionic composition. When the unit and the designation M century by ion composition consider ions that are present in the waters of at least 20 equiv.% accordingly, all of anions and cations. The most important M. century: sodium chloride or calcium-sodium, sulphate calcium or magnesium-calcium, chloride-hydrocarbonate sodium, hydrocarbonate magnesium-calcium or sodium. Ionic structure is very important in assessing drinking M. of century
4. The total mineralization of - the sum of all substances dissolved in water (without gas), expressed as g/L. as a lower limit, allowing to refer to the mineral water, it is recommended that the salinity of 2 g/l Total mineralization in many cases limits the application of M. of century in its natural form for internal use (for chloride water - not more than 10-12 g/l, for bicarbonate and chloride-hydrocarbonate - up to 25 g/l), and sometimes for baths (mineralization up to 150 g/l).
5. The specific content of biologically active components. To the components, giving waters specific features include: a) relevant mainly for drinking water (Br, J, As, Fe, Sorgue); b) relevant both for drinking water and for water outdoor applications (CO2 and H2SiO3); C) relevant only for water outdoor applications (H2S). All these components have medicinal value only if their content in the waters above the accepted norms (table. 1).
6. Radioactivity. Radioactive (radon) curative waters in the USSR include water containing higher concentrations of Rn (more than 5 km mccoury/l, or 14% Mahe). Therapeutic effect of these waters is caused by radioactive emissions (mainly giant dipole rays)emitted Rn and short-lived products of its disintegration (RaA, RaB, RaC, and others). Presence in M.V. high amounts of Ra and U (radium, uranium water) not only gives them any medicinal properties, but for drinking M. century is unacceptable (table. 2).
7. Active reaction (degree of acidity or alkalinity of water expressed by pH) determines the possibility of the existence in the waters of various forms of weak acids (H2CO3, H2S, H2SiO3 and some others) and is important for the assessment of therapeutic action of water. In M. C. pH value may vary from 2.0 to 3.5-9.5.
8. The temperature determines the ability to save in M. century (when entering them to the surface) of certain quantities of dissolved gases (in particular, CO2) and enrichment of waters by some characteristic components (especially H2SiO3). Temperature also affects the technique of using M century, the necessity of their heating or cooling. Very high temperatures without the presence of M. C. other important in the medical circumstances can not serve as the basis for inclusion of these waters to treatment, but it is a mandatory feature in all assessments and divisions M. of century
In the mineral water may also contain trace elements, providing for certain concentrations of toxic effect on the body. So for some elements present in M. century, recommended conditional restrictive criteria, which are several times higher than the respective maximum permissible concentrations for drinking water (PL. 2).
Mineral waters are divided, depending on their composition, properties and balneology on seven groups: 1) the waters without specific components and properties; 2) carbon dioxide (CO2); 3) sulphide (H2S, HS); 4) ferrous (Fe), arsenic (As) and with a high content of Mn, cu, Al and others; 5) bromine (Br), iodine (J), and with a high content of organic substances (Corg); 6) radon (Rn); 7) silicic Thermae (H2SiO3, HSiO3).
Each of these groups M. C. depending on conditions of their formation is shared by gas composition on three subgroups: a) nitrogen, b) methane (nitric methane) and carbon dioxide M. C. at the same time all M century, divided by anionic composition of 9 classes and on the cationic composition on a number of subclasses( and total mineralization of 6 grades (table. 1).
In General, the chemical composition of PM century is determined by the geological conditions of their formation and depends on many environmental factors. Redistribution subject to certain geological laws, allowing to allocate within the USSR five major provinces M century, which are formed of water of similar chemical composition and Genesis.
For the abbreviated designation of the chemical composition of M. C. apply the formula proposed by M. G. Kulovym and E. E. Carstensen. Currently, this formula recommended in the following form:

In the formula shall be indicated: as the indicator of total mineralization is the sum of all substances dissolved in water (without gas), ion composition - all ions contained in quantity not less than 20 equiv.% (but at least two of anions and two cations), and all biologically active compounds present in quantities higher than the accepted balneal standards (in g/l, except Rn specified in mccoury/l).
Example: chemical composition of waters Matsesta (well T-1):

In the USSR with the purpose of treatment, mainly in the form of baths, extensive use of carbon, sulfide, radon and nitrogen thermal mineral water (see Balneotherapy Baths). The main resorts with acidulous waters: Arzni, Arshan, Borjomi, Darasun, Essentuki, Kislovodsk, Polyana, Chiwanda, Shmakovka, Yurovka and other Resorts with sulfide waters: Hot Key, Yeysk, Kemeri, Keys, Lyuben Great, Mengjie, Nemyriv, Sochi - Matsesta, Sergius of Mineral Water, Sernovodsk, Bruises, Surakhani, Talgi, Ust-Kachka. Resorts with radon waters: Belokurikha, Myronivka, Molokovka, Pyatigorsk, Uvildy, Urguchan, Khmelnik, Khoja Obi-Garm. Resorts with nitrogen thermal waters: Alma-Arasan, Goryachinsk, Jelal-Abad, Issyk-ATA, Kultur, Obi-Garm, Sary-Agach, Talaya.
Hydrocarbonate, chloride, sulphate and complex composition M. C. low salinity used primarily for drinking treatment in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, liver and biliary tract, disorders of metabolism, some urological and other diseases.
Chalybeate waters, containing biologically active ion Fe, used mainly for drinking treatment in chlorosis, anemia, during recovery period after acute diseases and operations (blood loss), disorders of menstrual function and the propensity to spontaneous abortions, nervousness, requiring restorative treatment. Resorts with chalybeate waters: Marcial Waters, Tsagveri and other
ARSENICAL waters, containing trivalent arsenic (As), are mainly to carbon dioxide, chloride or chloride-hydrocarbonate sodium M. century arsenic water can be divided into two subtypes: arsenic content H3AsO4 and arsenic content H3AsO3. Water the first type are the sources zubi (Georgian SSR), the water of the second type - Julfa (Azerbaijan SSR) and Sanctuary (Sakhalin). They are used mainly inside tablespoons at various anemia, with symptoms of decline of nutrition, metabolism disorders, convalescence after acute diseases, for gastritis with low and normal acidity, chronic hepatitis and colitis. Externally they are used in diseases of circulation organs, skin and other
Iodine-bromine water with medium and high General mineralization (often brines) chemical composition are usually sodium chloride and hydrocarbonate-chloride-sodium and more complex composition of waters. Iodine-bromine water (Hot Key, Khadyzhensk, Ust-Kachka, and others) applied inside and in the form of baths mainly with atherosclerosis, heart diseases, hypertension without expressed circulatory disorders, for diseases of the joints, nervous system, female diseases, skin diseases, chronic inflammatory processes and other
Mineral water used in the resorts for drinking treatment in the form of baths, swimming pools, various kinds of showers, as well as for inhalation and rinsing with diseases of the upper respiratory tract and oral cavity, and for irrigation gynecological diseases, stomach and intestines (the enema, subaqueous baths), with the diseases of digestion organs and disorders of metabolism.
Application methods - see Balneotherapy.