Mineral water, the origin and the criteria of suitability for internal use

Medicinal mineral waters are called natural waters, which contain a high concentration of those or other mineral (less organic components, various gases (carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, and others), or have any specific physical properties - radioactivity, temperature, pH and other, making these waters have on the human body some action.
The mineral waters have a pronounced biological effects of saline, therapeutic or toxic depending on the different combinations of the above components, and especially on their concentration.
Not every mineral water can be recognized therapeutic and especially suitable for internal consumption. With the medical purpose are used underground mineral water sources in the vicinity of their natural outlet or water that is obtained by drilling wells at different depths. Groundwater is formed from atmospheric water or the metamorphosis of the ancient sea waters, often with age in millions of years and occurring in more or less depth from the surface. Groundwater acquire their inherent chemical composition, which is associated with leaching variety of rocks. Often mineral water deep origin on its way to the surface outputs are mixed with atmospheric waters and form new types of waters.
Natural sources to the surface sometimes far away from the places of formation of mineral water. Far underground way in 20-30 km done, for example, Kislovodsk narzans and some water Pyatigorsk sources. Long-term observations of flow rate, salt composition, on the one hand, and the amount of precipitation on the other, showed that the time during which the water passes this way, sometimes it is about a year. On the way mineral water continues to emerge, it is enriched with salts, loses some of its gas and heat.
Securities, for its curative qualities of the mineral springs are found in different geographical areas of the country. Especially many sources, suitable for indoor use, discovered in the Caucasus - Armenia, Georgia, Abkhazia and Azerbaijan - and, perhaps, even more in the Northern Caucasus - in North Ossetia, Kabarda and in the area of the Caucasian Mineral Waters. In the last field on a relatively small territory there are more than 100 active sources, of which 22 are suitable for internal use and has already won wide recognition.
The natural sources are arranged, capping wells, tunnels or galleries. Many of them are complex engineering structures.
Over the last 10 years almost all sources resorts reliably captured boreholes (Fig.1). Now you can get mineral water from depths 1-2-3 km. Water, deep wells absolutely pure, and its production rate varies slightly.
Medical properties of mineral water are determined by its physical and chemical composition, temperature, reaction, General mineralization, ionic-salt composition, presence of gases and organic substances. Different qualitative and quantitative combination of these factors makes a huge variety of natural mineral waters.