Mineral substances

Mineral substances (in power) is the integral part of the food that is necessary for human life and animals. Complete elimination of minerals from food in the experiment results in the death of animals, and partial restriction causes a number of serious irregularities and disorders.
Mineral substances contained in the cytoplasm of cells and intercellular liquid, creating the necessary osmotic pressure (see) and the necessary concentration of hydrogen ions; are constituent part of complex organic compounds essential for the body (for example, iron is part of hemoglobin, iodine is found in the secret of the thyroid gland, zinc - secret, pancreas and sexual glands). Minerals play an important role in metabolism (see Mineral metabolism). They are involved in the synthesis of digestive enzymes and ensure the normal course of digestion. Minerals are involved in plastic processes, especially in the construction of the substance of the bones of the skeleton, where phosphorus and calcium are the basic structural components. In forming substances teeth plays an important role fluorine, which gives them great strength. The critical role of minerals in maintaining acid-base balance in the body. The prevalence in the power of the acid or alkaline mineral substances can influence the shifts of acid-base balance. Sources of acid minerals are foodsthat contain significant quantities of sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine. Such products are meat, fish, eggs, bread, cereals. Sources of alkaline minerals are milk, vegetables, fruits, rich in calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium. Depending on the quantities in which mineral substances present in the body, they are divided into macronutrients and micronutrients. The macronutrients are calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sodium, chlorine, iron and other trace elements contained in the tissues in the amount of less than 0.01%, include copper, zinc, cobalt, manganese, iodine, fluorine and other
The body's need for minerals shall be satisfied by food, and partially with water.
Calcium is a mineral base of bone tissue and teeth. The content of calcium in the bones reaches 99% of its total amount in the body. The absorption of calcium depends on the content in food other salts, particularly phosphate and magnesium, and vitamins of group D. the power of the most favorable ratio of calcium to phosphorus 1 : 1,5-2 and calcium to magnesium 1 : 0,75. The intake of large quantities of oil reduces the absorption of calcium. Inozitfosfornah acid found in large numbers in bread and cereals, and oxalic acidcontained in the sorrel and spinach, form insoluble calcium compounds, in connection with which the calcium these products is not absorbed. A good source of digestible calcium is milk that contains 120 mg of calcium per 100 g of the product (120 mg%), and dairy products: cheese - 140 mg%, cheese - 700-1000 mg%. 3 cups of milk or 100 g of cheese satisfy daily needs adult in calcium. Good sources of calcium include vegetables and potatoes. In particular, cabbage contains 48 mg% calcium, potatoes - 10 mg% calcium. Daily calcium requirement 800-1000 mg Increased need for calcium (up to 1.5-2 g / day) exists in children and adolescents, pregnant and lactating women.
Phosphorus is involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. The main sources of phosphorus are animal products - cheese to 600 mg%, the egg yolk to 470 mg%, meat and fish 120-140 mg%, milk 95 mg%. High content of phosphorus differ legumes (beans to 504 mg%) and cereal 200-300 mg%, but the absorption of phosphorus of these products is low because of the presence in the cereal of phytin. The need for phosphorus - 1.5-2 g per day.
With exchange of phosphorus and calcium closely linked currency magnesium. Lack of food salts of magnesium may interfere with the activity of the nervous and muscular systems, and to improve the content of calcium in the arteries. Magnesium has antispastic and vasodilating properties. Mixed rations adult population usually contain magnesium in sufficient quantity. The main sources of magnesium in human nutrition are the bread, cereals and legumes. The need for magnesium 500-600 mg / day.
Iron is part of the pigment blood hemoglobin and some of oxidizing enzymes. The lack of iron in the diet can cause anemia. Sources of iron are many animal and vegetable products. Especially a lot of iron in the liver of 8.4 mg%, cottage cheese - 7,65 mg%. Legumes contain 5-6 mg% of iron, grain - about 2 mg%. Iron grain products poorly absorbed, whereas iron fruits and vegetables digested well. The body's need for iron - 6-12 mg / day.
Sodium enters the body mostly in the form of table salt (see) in the amount of 10-15 g / day, which corresponds 4-6 grams of sodium. Sodium is an important part of blood and plays an important role in water exchange. Excessive use of salt (25-30 g) promotes the retention of large quantities of water in body tissues.
Potassium promotes the excretion of fluid and sodium. It is mostly found in foods of plant origin, especially a lot of it in potatoes, legumes, bread, cereal. The daily requirement of potassium, 2-3
Special attention in the human diet deserve minerals - copper, zinc, manganese, iodine, bromine, cobalt, fluorine, and others who possess biological activity and are Bioelements. There are biogeochemical province, where widespread endemic goiterassociated with low content of iodine in water and food products; endemic fluorosisassociated with high content of fluorine in water; diseases of dental caries at lack of fluorine in water; development of anemia in areas of deficiency of cobalt in food products and other
The needs in the body of minerals - copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt - typically met a varied and balanced diet. Cm. well as Iron, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium, Minerals, Mineral metabolism, Sodium, Phosphorus.

Mineral substances (in power) - a number of chemical elements that enter the body together with food in the form of mineral salts. Minerals are a required part of the diet, are among the main food substances and possess biological activity. A number of minerals (iron, copper, cobalt, Nickel, manganese) plays an important role in the blood, in the processes of tissue respiration and intracellular metabolism. Studied plastic properties of minerals and their participation in the formation and regeneration of tissues of the body, especially the bones of the skeleton, where phosphorus and calcium are the basic structural components. One of the major functions Meters century is to maintain acid-base balance (see).
Meeting the needs of the organism in M. century is mainly of food consumed (see table).
Potassium (see) can increase the excretion of fluid and sodium salts. Sources of potassium are cereals, vegetables, potatoes, fruit, meat and fish products. Especially a lot of potassium in dried fruit (apricots, raisins, prunes, and others). The daily needs of the organism in potassium, 2-3
Calcium (see) is a permanent component of blood, cell and tissue juices bones. Calcium is found in significant amounts in many foods, but it is difficult to digest. The absorption of calcium depends on the ratio of its associated components of food - magnesium, phosphorus and other beneficial for the assimilation of calcium ratios are: phosphorus 1 : 1.5 and with magnesium 1 : 0,75. Optimal in all respects for the full assimilation of calcium are milk and milk products. Calcium cereals poorly absorbed due to the presence of inozitfosfornah acid, forming calcium unassimilable connection. The regulatory role in the absorption of calcium plays vitamin D (see). The daily requirement of calcium 800 - 1000 mg.
Magnesium (see) has antispastic, vasodilator and is able to stimulate intestinal peristalsis and increase the secretion of bile. There is evidence that lower cholesterol levels in the blood when magnesium diet. The main sources of magnesium in human diet are cereals (rye, wheat) and legumes (peas, beans). The daily requirement of magnesium 500-600 mg
Phosphorus (see) is involved in all types of metabolism. Many of his connection with protein, fatty acids and other form complex compounds of high biological activity - casein, lecithin and other utilization of phosphorus depends on its ratio in the first place with calcium. The main sources of phosphorus are dairy products (especially cheese), eggs, caviar, liver, meat, fish and other Daily need for phosphorus 1600 mg
Iron (see) is a true blood-forming element. High content of iron differ liver, beans, peas, oatmeal cereals. The daily needs of the organism in the gland 15 mg
High maintenance and prevalence in food calcium, magnesium, sodium or potassium determines their alkaline orientation, and such products may be used as sources of alkaline elements (herbal products, legumes, vegetables, fruits, berries, and animal products - milk and milk products). Acidic mineral substances enter the body with food products containing sulphur, phosphorus and chlorine (meat and fish products, eggs, bread, cereals).
A special group of minerals are trace elements (see)that are found in food products in small quantity (units or shares mg %). Trace elements in the biological properties are true Bioelements. Cm. also Mineral metabolism.


The content of the most important minerals in some food products
(in mg %, gross)
the content of mineral substances in food products