Diuretics - substances that increase the excretory function of the kidneys. The main value of diuretics is that with their help can be dissolved in water retention in the body, i.e. eliminated swelling and edema body cavity (ascites, hydrothorax and others).
To diuretic funds are organic compounds of mercury (Mercosul, pomeran); thiazides (dihlotiazid, tsiklometiazid): diakarb (see), spironolactone, ammonium chloride (see), potassium acetate, and a large group of diuretics vegetable origin (juniper berries, leaves of a bearberry, grass field horsetail and others).
The basis of the majority of diuretics is their ability to increase the excretion of urine ions Na+, Cl-, which leads again to increased excretion of water. Diuretics which cause a release of a large amount Popov sodium and chlorine (dihlotiazid, tsiklometiazid), sometimes called saluretikami ("collegename" means).
Diuretics related to organic mercury compounds are highly effective products. However, like other mercury compounds, they are relatively often give toxic complications. They also cause the development of ankaase, reducing the effectiveness of the drug. Thiazides somewhat inferior in efficiency of mercury diuretic means. At the same time they are much less toxic. The effect tiazidov no change in the face of alkalosis that can develop in their application. Thiazides have also hypotensive properties and is widely used for the treatment of hypertension.
Diuretic effect diakarba been rather modest. Unlike tiazidov, action diakarba accompanied by the development of acidosis, which quickly stopped the action of the preparation (2-4 days).
A special mechanism diuretic actions of spironolactone. It prevents the action of aldosterone, which reduces the secretion by renal sodium. The drug has a modest impact on diuresis. In some cases spironolactone has a diuretic action in the absence of effect from other diuretics. Low diuretic activity have potassium acetate, ammonium chloride, and diuretics plant origin, which are applied in the form of infusions, decoctions or extracts.
All diuretics most effective when water retention due to heart failure. These funds are also used when ascites-related cirrhosis of the liver, and edema, renal origin. Separate diuretics - see the article by name drugs.