Sputum

Sputum - pathological discharge respiratory emitted when coughing and expectoration. It may contain mucus, serous fluids, blood, pus, cellular and tissue elements and their degradation products, microorganisms. Sputum helps to identify the nature of the process in the respiratory organs and in some cases to establish its etiology. It consists of the examination of sputum, microscopic, bacterioscopic, sometimes bacteriological and biological research. Sputum samples should be collected fresh, better the morning, before eating, pre-rinsing the mouth. Only for the search for M. tuberculosis sputum may collect 1 - 2 days.
The inspection. Sputum is poured into a Petri dish and inspect on a white and black background. During the inspection mark, the nature of sputum - mucous, mucous-purulent meningitis, serous, bloody, and so on; a consistence - liquid, viscous, libcobra; colour - colourless, white, yellow, green, rusty, red and so on; stratification in chronic suppurative processes sputum after standing is divided into three layers: top - mucous-purulent frothy, medium - serous, lower - purulent; purulent sputum is divided into two layers - serous and purulent; the smell of sputum often absent; the fetid smell of freshly isolated sputum depends either on rotting tissue disintegration (gangrene, disintegrating cancer), or from the decay of sputum delay it in cavities. Individual elements of sputum during its examination can detect spiral Kortmann (typical for bronchial asthma) in the form of small twisted white strings; clumps of fibrin - whitish or reddish tree branching elastic moulds clearance bronchi encountered fibrinous bronchitis and occasionally when pneumonia; lentils - a small greenish-yellow dense lumps, consisting of calcified elastic fibers, crystals cholesterol and Soaps containing M. tuberculosis; stoppers Dietrich, similar to rosefinches type and composition, but not containing M. tuberculosis and publisher at crushing fetid smell, occur in abscesses, gangrene, putrid bronchitis; Druze actinomycetes (see the Actinomycosis) - dense yellowish spots, like semolina; the necrotic tissue pieces; the remnants of food.

Sputum (will excrete sputum) - pathological discharge respiratory emitted when coughing or spitting up. The composition of the sputum may contain mucus, serous fluid, cellular and tissue elements and their degradation products, crystal education, animal parasites and their eggs, protozoa and bacteria.
When studying M. use of macro - and microscopic, chemical, microscopic, cytological, bacteriological, sometimes and biological research. M. preferable to collect in the morning, before eating, after the mouthwash.
When the macroscopic research of M. note: the number (daily); character - mucous, mucous-purulent meningitis, serous, hemorrhagic, and so on; colour - colourless, white, yellow, green, rusty, red, gray brown, gray, and so on; a consistence - liquid, viscous, sluhovina and others; stratification mucosa and mucopurulent M not stratified, purulent when standing is divided into serous and purulent layers, M with suppurative processes is divided into three layers: top - mucous-purulent foamy, medium - serous, the bottom - of pus and tissue decay; the smell is often missing, stinking rotten smell depends either on rotting decay of tissues (gangrene, disintegrating cancer), or from decomposition of M when its accumulation in cavities (M. tuberculosis, as a rule, does not smell).
From small elements M. the naked eye can be distinguished: the spiral of Kursman - small dense tortuous white thread; fibrin clots - whitish or reddish tree branching elastic education of various sizes; lentils - a small greenish-yellow dense lumps, consisting of calcified elastic fibres of cholesterol crystals and Soaps containing tubercle bacilli; stoppers Dietrich, similar to rosefinches type and composition, but not containing M. tuberculosis and publisher at crushing fetid odor; Druze actinomycetes - small yellowish grains, like semolina; necrotic pieces of lung tumors; food residues; foreign body etc.