Molecular biology

Molecular biology - the branch of science that studies the internal organization of life processes at the molecular level. The task of molecular biology is the explanation subtle mechanisms such major life events, such as heredity, growth, development, differentiation, irritability, movement, memory. The term molecular biology has arisen in connection with intensive study of macromolecules: their physics and chemistry, synthesis and disintegration, localization and biological functions. Macromolecules are not mere conglomerate of small molecules, their enormous size and molecular weight (in the range from tens of thousands to hundreds of millions) cause such new chemical and physical qualities that cannot be predicted from the properties of their component low-molecular components. A detailed study of macromolecular compounds, their properties and transformations in the implementation of biological processes became possible thanks to the integrated research scientists working in various areas of natural Sciences.
The origins of molecular biology are organic chemistrydealing with the study of the chemical structure of macromolecules; biochemistry, the purpose of which is the study of the reactions of metabolism in biological systems; Biophysics and physics, which allows with the help of various physical and physical-chemical methods of research (spectroscopy, x-ray analysis, and so on) to judge about the physical properties of macromolecules; genetics, giving the opportunity to judge the genetic function of macromolecules, first of all nucleic acids; Cytology, studying the ultrastructure of cells, mathematics, allowing to model biological processes, and other Joint efforts of representatives of these Sciences have led to the development of methods (methods in molecular biology), which allows to study and establish links between the structure and the structural transformations of molecules and their biological functions.
Exceptional attention is drawn at present, two main classes of macromolecules - proteins and nucleic acids. Proteins are inherent in such important biological functions, as enzymatic catalysis, binding and transfer of vital substances, immunological activity, the ability to cut and other Nucleic acids are the material carrier of heredity; to study them using the methods of molecular biology allows to find out the basic mechanisms of transfer and realization of genetic information, the nature of the processes of variability.
Thanks to the successes in molecular biology, numerous biological mechanisms now can be reduced to molecular processes and to explain them, on the basis of the structure and properties of chemical molecules, as well as features and types of chemical reactions in the living cell.