Mammary gland

Breast - paired organ, located on the front wall of the chest, producing milk and intended for infant feeding.

the structure of the breast Fig. 1. The structure and topography of the breast:

1 - lateral axillary lymph node;
2 and 3 axillary artery and vein;
4 - beams brachial plexus;
5 - Central axillary lymph node;
6 - apical axillary lymph nodes;
7 - supraclavicular lymph nodes;
8 - lateral thoracic artery and vein;
9 - sternal lymph nodes;
10 - plexus blood and lymph vessels;
11 - the branch of internal thoracic artery to the breast;
12 - areola;
13 - milk ducts;
14 - lateral arterial branches of the breast;
15 - breast axillary lymph nodes;
16 - Chuck lymph nodes.

In the centre of the breast (Fig. 1) is the nipple, on the top of his open excretory ducts. Nipple surrounded by a plot of pigmented skin - around the circle (areola), the surface of which is covered with tubercles that contains cancer. Breast is made up of 15 to 20 shares, placed radially nipple; each share has a separate system of ductless; together, they form the General excretory duct of the share. The space between the lobes of the breast is made of fat and connective tissue, in which vessels and nerves pass. The blood supply to the breast is mainly due to the branches inside and outside of the thoracic arteries and intercostal arteries. Nerviruet Breasts branch of the neck and shoulder plexus and intercostal nerves. The sympathetic nerve fibers enter the breast with blood vessels. Lymph drainage of the breast is performed partly in the region spektralnogo lymph plexus and axillary lymph nodes; from inner and Central sections of the breast lymph flow is directed into sternal lymph nodes. From axillary lymph nodes lymph goes to subclavian trunks. Roads are usually applies breast cancer and metastases.
Girls and boys by the time of birth have the beginnings of a breast. The newborn in the lumen of the ducts these rudimentary mammary glands may accumulate a kind of secret released through the nipple out ("milk witches"). Further development of the mammary glands occurs in girls with 10-12 years under the complex impact of hormones produced by the ovaries, pituitary, adrenal and thyroid gland. Maximum development reach Breasts during pregnancy, secretory function begins after childbirth (see Lactation). After 45 to 50 years in connection with the beginning of menopause breast reverses its development, and in 3-5 years after menopause from glandular elements breast cancer remain only excretory ducts, surrounded reborn connective tissue and adipose tissue. Male breast remains in its infancy. Some boys during puberty may be the growth of glandular elements and stroma of the breast (see Gynecomastia).

blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves of the breast
Fig. 1. Breast able lactation. Fig. 2 and 3. A slice of the lactating breast, painting hematoxylin-eosin (Fig. 2) and Sudan black (Fig. 3). Fig. 4. Breast able involution. Fig. 5. Blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves of the breast: 1 - m. pectoralis major; 2 - nodus lymphaticus lat.; 3 - nodi lymphatici subscapulars; 4 - a. et v. subscapulars; 5 - v. cephalica; 6 and 8 - a. et v. axillares; 7 and 9 fasciculi lat. et med. plexus brachialis; 10 - nodus lymphaticus centralis; 11 - a., et v. thoracicae lat.; 12 - m. pectoralis minor; 13 - nodi lymphatici apicales; 14 - nodi lymphatici supraclaviculars (BNA); 15 - nodi lymphatici subpectorales (BNA); 16 - nodi lymphatici interpectorales (BNA); 17 - a. et v. thoracicae int.; 18 - nodi lymphatici sternales; 19 - rami perforantes; 20 - plexus blood and lymph vessels; 21 - rami mammarii med. (nn. intercostales); 22 - ramus mammarius a. thoracicae int.; 23 - lymphatic vessels breast going to nodi lymphatici sternales; 24 - lymphatic vessels of the breast, heading for the preperitoneal tissue; 25 - ramus mammarius (from a. intercostalis post.); 26 - sinus lactiferi; 27 - ductus lactiferi; 28 - areola mammae; 29 - v. thoracoepigastrica; 30 - lymphatic vessels breast going to nodi lymphatici pectorales; 31 - rami mammariae lat.; 32 - nodi lymphatici pectorales; 33 - lymphatic vessel breast going to nodi lymphatici interpectorales.