Breast cancer

Breast cancer among malignant tumors in women is one of the first places. In men is rare. In the initial stage breast cancer is a small single, dense, smooth and painless site that increased gradually penetrates the skin, fascia, muscles. Metastases usually first appear in regional lymph nodes (axillary, under - and supraclavicular, retrosternal), then in distant organs, most often in the lungs, liver, bones.

breast cancer
Breast cancer (digital mammogram)

Fig. 4. Self-examination in the prone position.

For breast cancer is conventionally divided into four stages. Stage I - the cancer with a diameter of less than 3 cm is located in gland metastases not. Stage IIA - tumor to 5 cm, passing on fiber. When trying to build a fold of skin over the tumor appears wrinkled skin - symptom retraction (Fig. 2); regional metastases not. Stage IIB, what stage IIA, but there are metastases in the axillary lymph nodes. Stage III (a and b) - a tumor of various sizes with multiple metastases in the axillary, subclavian or if the lymph nodes. About the defeat of regional lymph node metastases with violations of the outflow of lymph shows the symptom of "orange peel" skin over the tumor (figure 3). In this stage, is the funnel indrawing of the skin over the tumor. Stage IV - the cancer of mammary gland with the spread to distant organs.
To rare forms of breast cancer are rogatory in which there has been a marked redness of breast skin, applicable to the skin of the trunk, and masticatory flowing sharply with increasing temperature, swelling of the breast, pain, and padget cancer. The latter begins in the nipple and areola, gradually reduced nipple, then disappears, formed flat weeping plaques. The process goes slowly, gradually infiltered breast tissue, there are metastases.
Breast cancer should be differentiated from benign tumors, nodular forms of mastitis, and also from chronic purulent and nagnoenia mastitis. The final diagnosis can be made only after histological studies dense areas of the breast. The effectiveness of breast cancer treatment is greatest if it started in the early stage of the disease. Usually patients themselves seek medical advice about accidentally discovered during dressing or bathing tumor in the breast. Sometimes the reason for the appeal serve discharge from the nipple. When detected during the examination of seals in the tissue of the breast cancer patients should be urgently directed to the doctor-oncologist.
Prevention of breast cancer - prevention and treatment of precancerous diseases. With the purpose of early detection of cancer requires more popular information about early signs of breast cancer, promotion of self-healthy women (Fig. 4). Of great importance systematic preventive examination in which can be detected breast cancer. If during the self-examination, the woman will notice the asymmetry of the breast, indrawing nipple, skin, swelling, she should apply to a medical institution.
The treatment of breast cancer predominantly combined: surgery, radiotherapy, hormonal or chemotherapy. The plan of treatment depends on the stage of the disease, age, hormonal status of the patient, and so on, the Main is radical surgery (see Mastectomy).
Sarcoma of breast cancer is very rare, the Tumor croproperty, uneven density, skin thinning, sometimes slightly redness, possible extension of the saphenous vein. Characterized by rapid growth, absence of regional metastases. The basic method of treatment is the removal of the breast. The prognosis is unfavorable.

breast cancer
Fig. 1. Breast cancer type Pejeta. Fig. 2. Breast cancer, lymphangiectasia form. Fig. 3. Tubular breast cancer (bilateral defeat). Fig. 4. Serosny breast cancer (by incision) at the background of cystic fibroadenomatosis. Fig. 5. Rogatory breast cancer.