Lactic acid products

Fermented milk (dairy products) - products of acido-lactic or mixed (lactic acid and alcohol fermentation. Lactic acid products are made from pasteurized cow milk or cream by fermenting them leaven prepared on pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria with or without adding milk yeast. The main types of milk products are curdled milk, acidophilus milk, acidophilus milk and kefir, sour cream and cottage cheese. The fat content of milk products made from whole milk, should not be lower than the 3.2%. Fat sour cream Amateur - 40%, diet - 10%, the highest and the first grade - 30%. For prostokvashi used pure cultures of lactic Streptococcus , or in combination with other lactic acid bacteria. Acidophilus milk and acidophilus milk produced to leaven of pure cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus or in combination with other lactic acid bacteria and milk yeast. Kefir is preparing to leaven of kefir grains. The timing of maturation kefir is divided into weak (one-day), average (two-day) and full (three-day). To lactic acid products include kymyz is made from Mare's or cow's milk using for fermentation of cultures of lactic acid lactic acid bacteria and yeast. As kefir, kumys is divided into weak (one-day), average (two-day) and full (three-day). These varieties differ from each other mainly by the content of alcohol and acidity. In all kinds of Mare's milk fat content shall be not less than 0.8%, alcohol content not higher than 2%. Lactic acid products may produce low-fat made with skim milk (skim milk). The fat content of lean lactic acid products GOST does not.
The nutritional value of milk products-see table.

Name of product Chemical composition,% Calories (large), 100 g of the product
water proteins fats carbohydrates
Curdled milk, acidophilus milk, acidophilus milk, yogurt (fat, whole milk)
The same (from skimmed milk)
Kumys average, oily


87,6
to 91.1
89,6


3,3
3,4
1,8


3,7
-
1,7


3,9
4,0
3,3


67
34
49
Food and nutritional value of milk products (except kumys) equivalent of cow's milk. However, they are superior digestibility milk. If the milk in an hour after consumption absorbed by 32%, lactic acid products over the same period assimilated to 91%. Lactic acid products have a normalizing effect on the intestinal microflora of a person and suppress the development in the gut of harmful germs.
Lactic acid products have a healing and therapeutic properties in many gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis; they improve gastric and intestinal secretion, normalize intestinal peristalsis, reduces gas-formation. Lactic acid products provide a generally strengthening, tonic effect, promote metabolism, has a beneficial effect on the nervous system.
Lactic acid products are perishable products (see).
For the lactic products and cheeses are produced from milk in the clotting of casein (see) and its subsequent processing. Depending on the method of processing and ripening cheeses are subdivided into solid (36-43% moisture), soft (moisture to 55%), brine (cheese) and processed. In their composition they contain 15-25% protein, 20-30% fat, 700-1000 mg% calcium, 400 - 600 mg% phosphorus, about 0.2 mg% of vitamin a, 0.1 mg% thiamine 0.5 mg% Riboflavin. Energy value per 100 g of cheese 300 to 400 calories. The most favourable temperature storage cheese 8-10 degrees. Violation of physical-chemical processes of manufacture of cheeses and recommended storage modes leads to the formation of various vices. Swelling and rancid cheese is caused by bacteria of group of Escherichia coli or the development of butyric acid and putrefactive anaerobic microorganisms; sour and bitter taste inherent young, immature cheese. Unusual cheese color (blue, red) is called pigmentoobrazovanie microorganisms. Very frequent Vice cheese - plesnevami surface and Podarochnoe layer. Cheeses with these types of damage to implement not be and should be sent in industrial processing (production of processed cheese after removal of the affected parts) or technical disposal. Cheese affected cheese mites and larvae cheese flies, for power is not suitable. Cheese can be a cause of food poisoning staphylococcal and Salmonella nature. There are cheeses, for the manufacture of which are applied fungi (Roquefort, brie, Camembert).
For prevention of hit of pathogenic microflora cheese should be made only from pasteurized milk with observance of the established for each type of cheese ripening.
Cheese is made from milk by fermenting it with lactic bacteria with the subsequent removal of serum from a clot with the aim of obtaining concentrated protein product.
Depending on the source of raw materials distinguish bold, bold and fat-free cottage cheese, and by production method - acid and acid-rennet. Cheese made from pasteurised milk intended for direct human consumption and production from it curd products; from raw milk cheese is used only for the production of semi-finished products subjected to heat treatment.
In the cheese contains: protein (13 - 16%), including irreplaceable amino acids (tryptophan, lysine, methionine), fat (9 - 20%); mineral salts (calcium 140-160 mg%, phosphorus 130-150 mg%). Caloric value of 100 g fat cottage cheese 250 calories, fat-free - 75 kcal.
The cheese is sold within 12 hours. from the date of manufacture, as in cooling conditions (temperature no higher than 8 degrees) - 36 hours. Cottage cheese diet is realized within 24 hours. (after 12 hours. is cooling). Frozen cottage cheese should be kept in the refrigerator at temperature from -8 to -12° not more than 7 months.
In lactic acid products runs the intense activity of acido-lactic bacteria, preventing the development of disease-causing microbes. However, inappropriate preparation milk products, non-observance of hygiene rules, the violation of the terms and storage temperatures in lactic acid products can be stored bacteria typhoid, dysentery and other, as well as the causative agents of food poisoning. Especially dangerous in this respect lactic products, obtained as a result of spontaneous souring of milk ("samachson"). Catering to such lactic acid products to implementation are not allowed. At home preparation of milk products must comply with the strictest purity of tableware, the pre milk to boil and after cooling to make a special yeast or leaven of the previously prepared milk products. The process of ripening should occur at temperature of 25-30 degrees and not to last for long term. Consumption derived lactic acid products should be done in the same or next day. Lactic acid products shall not be stored without refrigeration.