Milk

Milk is the most important food product.
People eat cow, goat, sheep, Buffalo, horse, camel and reindeer M.. For direct consumption (drinking) pasteurized cow milk is available in the following varieties - one-piece, high-fat, rendered, fortified and lean. Whole milk normalized, i.e., the fat content should be no less than 3.2%. Milk can be restored, i.e. prepared wholly or partly of dried milk (milk powder). Milk greasy and baked milk is brought cream until the fat content of 6% and is subject homogenization. Baked milk, in addition, subject to a long thermal treatment. For fortification milk is added vitamin C (10 mg%). Milk may be low, completely not contain fat. It is known ionite, or geminisarahanne, the milk in their chemical composition and physical properties as close to breast milk. When stvorazhivanii in the stomach child ionite M produces the same small, delicate, easily digestible cereal, and milk. Get ionite milk by special processing of milk through ion-exchange resin. In the process removes part of the calcium, the conditions for receiving less dense clot. Implementation of ionite milk is produced through infant food.
- Food and biological properties of milk is the product of an especially high value. It contains substances plastic, energy and regulatory nature, necessary to sustain life and development of the animal organism. As part Meters, there are over 90 ingredients-about 20 amino acids (see), the same amount of fatty acids (see), more than 25 mineral substances, more than 10 vitamins (see) and other Chemical composition and caloric content of milk of different animals are given in table. 1.

Milk Content in g per 100 g of the product Content in g per 100 g of the product
solids proteins fats carbohydrates
Cow
Goat
Sheep
Buffalo
Mare
Donkey
Camel
Reindeer
13,0
13,4
18,5
17,9
10,7
9,9
13,6
33,8
3,3
3,6
5,7
4,5
2,1
1,9
3,5
10,0
3,9
4,3
7,2
7,7
1,8
1,4
4,5
18,7
4,7
4,5
4,6
4,8
6,4
6,2
4,9
3,6
69
73
109
110
52
46
76
230
The inclusion of milk daily nutrition improves the ratio of amino acids total diet promotes their use in the body for the synthesis of tissue protein, increases the body's supply of calcium in the milk in easily digestible form, increases the absorption of calcium from other foods. With milk in the body receives a large complex of vitamins (see the so-3, PL. "The content of vitamins in food products), and the fat in an easily digestible form.
Chemical composition and physical and colloid structure milk is a good medium for microbial growth, it can long survive and thrive many microorganisms, including pathogenic causative intestinal infections, tuberculosis, brucellosis and other Milk plays an important role in the occurrence of food poisoning (see), especially Staphylococcus intoxications. A role in the prevention of food poisoning plays strict compliance with sanitary requirements in the farms that supply milk, dairies and in the trade network. In the farms that supply milk, you should pay attention to the prevention of infectious animal diseases, as well as creation of conditions preventing the massive bacterial contamination of milk. Machine milking, the milk collection in a closed system, cleaning and disinfection of equipment, implements and containers allow to receive milk, minimally contaminated by bacteria. An important activity to ensure high milk quality is rapid cooling. Freshly-milked milk contains antibacterial substances that prevent the growth of microorganisms. However, the period of validity of these substances (bactericidal phase) short. Extend bactericidal phase by cooling of milk.
Changes in the number of bacteria when storing fresh refrigerated and non-refrigerated milk are given in table. 2.
Shelf life The number of bacteria
in 1 ml of milk
chilled non-refrigerated
Fresh milk
3 hours after milking
6 hours after milking
12 hours after milking
After 2 to 4 hours after milking
11 500
11 500
8000
7000
62 000
11 500
18 000
102 000
114 000
1 300 000
Milk for the population according to GOST should meet the following bacterial indicators (table. 3).
Title milk Limit the number of bacteria in 1 ml of milk The title of Escherichia coli, ml
Pasteurized and bottled packages, group a
Pasteurized and bottled paketigruppi B
Pasteurized in flasks and tanks
75 000
150 000
300 000
3
0,3
0,3

One of the main indicators of the quality of milk is the content of fat, which should be no less than 3.2%.
Determination of fat content of milk (buttermere) is made by means of Jaromer (lactometer, butyrometer).


Milk is the most important staple food of the people. Women's milk (see Breast milk) - the main product of infant nutrition. Cow's Feet, and Mare's on the content of nutrients closest to female M. Milk from other mammals (goats, deer) is slightly different from the cow. Depending on processing methods are distinguished: M. whole and skimmed, pasteurized and raw, bottle and Flaine.
Organoleptic properties. Unusual color of cow's milk indicates changes its hygienic qualities. Solid pink colouring M may be caused by blood, solid blue or blue-violet specifies an external contamination. Bluish tinge may have captured M Surface staining M (sometimes spots) is due pigmentoobrazovanie bacteria: Bact. prodigiosum (red color), Bact. synxanthum (yellow), Bact. pyocyaneum (blue) and other M, obtained in unsanitary conditions, may have persistent unpleasant shade of manure smell or stuffiness. The same smell of milk and may be caused considerable duplication in it Escherichia coli. The emergence of salty taste may indicate mastitis. The bitter taste of M can be called spore, putrefactive and other microbes with long-term storage of the pasteurized or raw M at low temperature. M can become bitter also a result of getting into the feed of wormwood. Consistency M can become viscous, mucous due breeding in it Bact. lactis viscosum and other microorganisms. Under normal or only slightly elevated acidity M sometimes curtailed by boiling. The reason may be considerable duplication in the convent of mikrokokkov that produce enzymes that are close to the surface, or spore microbes (Bact. cereus), impurities from colostrum.
In milk may have a strong flatulence (roaming M)caused a significant multiplication of yeast, Escherichia coli or butyric acid bacteria. Changing organoleptic properties Meters, described above, is called a violation of the hygiene requirements regarding the conditions for milking, washing dishes and insufficient cooling M, and also due to improper feeding lactating cows, leading to gastrointestinal disorders. Such Meters for consumption unusable. M. last yields (starodachnoe M) at the end of lactation acquires a bitter-salty taste, the chemical composition is changed towards increase of the content of proteins, fats, vitamins, enzymes and minerals.
The chemical composition. The amount of water in cow's milk average of 87%. Proteins consist of casein (2.7%)and lactalbumin (0,4%), lactoglobulin (0,2%), and other
Proteins in milk contains all essential to human amino acids (table. 1).
The high nutritional value of protein M. proven in animal experiments and observations over the people. The digestibility (completeness of suction) proteins M reaches 98%.
Fatty substances milk average of 3.9%. They consist of neutral fat and small amounts of lipids: lecithins (on average 50 mg%) and cholesterol (12-18 mg%) with traces of ergosterol. Homogenization improves consistency M. and taste. To this end M. passed under pressure through a homogenizer, in which fatty balls raspravlyaetsya. This M better absorbed than usual.
Dairy carbohydrates are made up of lactose (4.5 to 5.2 percent).
Vitamins. The maximum number of ascorbic acid in only what they received cow's Feet is about 2 mg%. Straining, transfusion, cleaning, pasteurization and bottling of milk reduces the vitamin C content of approximately 60-70%. From the b vitamins deserves attention Riboflavin (0.1 - 0.2 mg%); M is a significant source of this vitamin in the diet, especially in childhood. Processing M reduces the content of Riboflavin. Particularly sensitive Riboflavin to light: in M. exposed to sunlight, losses reach 3.5 hours about 75%. M. poorly nicotinic acid (0.1 - 0.2 mg%); other b vitamins, see M. also in small amounts, with the exception of vitamin B6 (0.1 - 0.2 mg%) and Pantothenic acids (0,1 - 0,2 mg%). Vitamin B12 is found in the monastery in quantities of about 0.01 - 0.03 mg%, although there are data and lower content of his (below 0.001 mg%). Vitamin B12 is resistant to treatment processes of M. of Vitamin a in M in average of about 0.02 mg%, carotin - 0.014 mg%. Vitamin E is found in M in the amount of 0.01-0.25 mg%. In the summer of vitamins in Meters more (green fodder)than in winter (dry food).
Organic acids in fresh milk presents one citric acid found mainly in the form of calcium salts in the amount of about 0.2%. Citrate play a significant role in the salt balance and stability M. as a disperse system.
Enzymes enter the milk from the blood, white blood cells and cells of the breast; often they have and bacterial origin. Physiological importance of enzymes is not clear, however, some of them with success are used for hygienic and clinical studies under the control of pasteurization (phosphatase reaction and peroxidase), freshness and bacterial contamination Meters (the test for reductase), for diagnosis of diseases of the udder (cat).
Mineral elements in M (average of 0.75% ash) in natural conditions represented mainly mono - and diphosphate potassium and magnesium, di - and triphosphates of calcium, chlorides of sodium and potassium, citrates calcium. There is also a calcium associated with casein, phosphorus and sulphur, organically included in the composition of proteins. The high content in M readily absorbable calcium (an average of 112 mg%) and favorable ratio of phosphorus (CA : P = 1 : 4) make Meters especially valuable food product compared to other food products, the majority of the poor in calcium. Milk not only enriches the body with calcium, but also corrects often unfavorable ratio Sa : P
Milk contains on average 100 mg% chlorine, 50 mg% sodium 150 mg% potassium, 11 mg% magnesium and 32 mg% sulfur. M. relatively poor in microelements: iron 0,05-0,2 mg%, on average 0.15 mg%; attempts enrichment M iron in food were unsuccessful. The amount of copper in M 0.01 - 0.02 mg%, Zn 0.3 mg%, iodine 0.05-0.1 mg% (it is possible to increase the iodine content of up to 1.4 mg% by introducing food organic compounds of iodine, fluorine 0.01-0.02 mg%, manganese approximately 0.003 mg%, molybdenum and cobalt 0,002 mg%.
The chemical composition of PM of main types of agricultural animals and female M are presented in table. 2.
Norms of consumption of milk. We recommend the following hygienic norms daily consumption of cow's Feet: for adults - 250-500 ml, for pregnant and nursing mothers - 750 to 1000 ml for the elderly (over 60 years) - 500 ml. Standards for children - see (Milk in the diet of children).