Sixty-nine pages Mondino de Liuzzi

Everyone agrees: the law
Salerno - immortal glory.
The whole light the concourse
There, to find the cure.
I believe that the true doctrine of the school of Salerno,
Even hated, I started to people that lived there.
These lines were written at the beginning of the XII century. The author signed them verses alias - Archipod. I believe that it belonged to the knight class, participated in the Crusades and serious illness forced him to go to Salerno, near Naples, in the famous then medical school, practical direction. Only in the Empire, she received the right to confer the title of doctor. Classes in this school called "the Gippokratovoj communities", lasted five years and was supplemented by a year of practical work.
A great role in the development of the first medical school in Western Europe was a well-known doctor of XI century Constantine the African. He translated for Salerno with Arabic medical writings of antiquity and, to the dismay of the clergy, nazarovskogo the direction of the minds of teachers and students, it was found desire to go wrong road in the study of medicine.
You can say that the school in Salerno bore secular character: deans were not Catholic monks and the people family, and among the teachers of the XI century the history of medicine called a few women's names.
XII century was the Golden age of Salerno. It was at this time in different cities of Europe has already formed unions of teachers and students. They have become permanent and was called "universities". The Latin word "Universitas", which means "community"meant any kind of professional associations. Depending on the subject matter of these corporations were called faculties. The word "faculty" originally discovered specific area of knowledge.
Medicine also became the subject of the optional study.
Many times doctors from Salerno appealed to the spiritual authorities with the request to allow anatomical dissection. The Church was silent. In 1240 Emperor Frederick II and his regime gave them the right to open one corpse in five years.
But after sixty years, the head of the Church forbade those rare opening.
However, requests from the universities continued to arrive. And in XIV-XV centuries in the charters of some educational institutions have already appeared paragraph, which included the anatomy classes in special premises.
But one thing is the resolution on paper, the other, the practical organisation of studies. To get the corpse to study every time proved by the fact extremely difficult. Most often, the teaching of anatomy was to read in Latin appropriate section from the works of Galen.
Textbooks were not. Students in preparing for the discussions, which questioned the extent of their knowledge, the benefits were the lectures.
If the student life was good, lucky seven or eight years received the degree of doctor and its symbols: takes the book as a confirmation of his scholarship and the ring-signet.
Often the owner of this, it was already over thirty, because students changed universities, moved from one city to another. Teachers they could choose themselves.
But Mondino de Liuzzi, the son of a pharmacist from Bologna, was only twenty years old when the city's University awarded him the degree of doctor of medicine. After the thousand-year break Mondino de Liuzzi again picked up the knife and stood up to sectional table. Examining the corpse, he wrote a book about the human body. This small tutorial anatomy - only sixty-nine pages - became a Handbook for several generations of physicians. Mondino de Liuzzi first tried to clarify and complement Galen.
However, he acted with caution on papal authority; the bones of the skull anatomist not investigated. Better, he thought, keep away from sin". Because there was only 1315 year.
Anatomy was still considered the most dangerous and sinful branch of medicine. Description of the human body was yet to be created.
This gigantic work fell to Andrei Vesalius.