Detergents

Detergents - substances in the form of powders, liquids or pastes used for cleaning clothes, linen, skin from impurities in the production and living conditions. Detergents are made mainly of synthetic surfactants, detergents (see) with the addition of salts of phosphoric acid, sodium sulphate and others, and also substances that protect the skin.
Like the Soaps (see), detergents form a rich foam, dissolve and remove pollutants. A number of synthetic detergents has antibacterial and deodorizing properties; they are used for the treatment arms (see) surgeons before operations.
The most common domestic synthetic surface active substances (SSAS) and cleaning products on their basis - sulfanol NP-1, DS-RACES, "Progress", "News", "Astra" and others, OP-7, OP-10, KEEFE-14, UFA-8 and others Need to find detergents taking into account physical and chemical properties deleted pollutant.
With long-term use of detergents possible irritation, dryness of skin and allergic reactions.
Synthetic detergents, in lakes, can cause unwanted smells, taste of water. There are data about the adverse effects of these substances on the flora and fauna of water bodies and a warm-blooded animals. Therefore established maximum allowable concentrations of surfactants in water reservoirs.

Detergents are chemicals used in industrial conditions for cleaning of the skin and clothing from pollution by substances used in the production process (for example, lubricating-cooling liquids of various petroleum products, paints, varnishes and other). The effectiveness of detergents depends on their surface tension, preobrazovatelei and detergency. In the USSR generally produced anionic (alkyl sulphates, alkyl sulphonates and alchilarilsulfonaюi) and nonionic substances. The representative of the class of alkyl sulphates is the washing powder "News", prepared on the basis sulphonated fatty alcohols. The representative of the class of alchilarilsulfonaюi - contact Petrov. The main representatives of nonionic M. S. OP-7 and OP-10. Synthetic M. S. in its pure form is rarely used and serve as source material for the preparation of M. E., which consist of detergent, active additives (salts of phosphoric acid, sodium sulphate, metasilicate sodium and others) and substances that protect the skin (carboxymethylcellulose, dermology - high molecular weight cyclic compounds containing groups of SO2,NH4, delgany - condensed phosphates).
Along with good washing and cleansing properties, many synthetic M. S. have considerable biological activity and are bactericidal, fungicidal and deodorizing properties. Prolonged use of synthetic detergents does not cause any negative reactions of the skin. Dryness of the skin occurs only in rare cases, in the presence of organic changes or increased sensitivity of the skin. Irritation of the skin depends on the structure and length of the hydrocarbon chain M. C. Connection with long hydrocarbon chain cause very mild skin reaction. Connection with short branched chain have a great irritant effect. M. S. should not contain such irritating additives, as water-soluble compounds of hexavalent chromium, Nickel salts and persulfates, especially potassium (washing powders).
Synthetic surface active substances widely used in medicine (for obezvozhivanija the skin of the hands of the surgeon before the operation, the destruction of specific smells, and so on) and in cosmetics. For more complete cleaning of the skin and clothing from industrial pollution detergents must in each case be selected taking into account the conditions of their use. So, for cleaning of clothing from organochlorine pesticides, organic compounds of mercury and isocyanates the most effective solutions on the basis of anionic substances with the addition of alkaline electrolytes soda, trisodium phosphate; for monuron, phenylisopropylamine (IFC), chlorophenylpiperazine (HIPC.) - nonionic substances OP-7 and OP-Yu with the addition of carboxymethyl cellulose.