Mushrooms

Mushrooms are a type of lower plants. Mushrooms contain no chlorophyll and feed on organic matter ready. Some species of fungi live saprophytic, at the expense of dead organic matter, other parasitize on living plants and animals, causing them to various diseases (see parasitic Fungi).
For growing mushrooms necessary: moisture, heat, and limited access of light. Multiply mushrooms vegetative way or through a dispute. Mushrooms consist of mycelium and fruit-phone Mycelium, or mycelium, usually hidden in the earth or other substrate; fruit bodies grow out of mycelium and are towering above the substrate education of various forms. In everyday life is called mushrooms only those mushrooms, fruit body which consists of a large hats sitting on legs.
Yeast and other fungi species tend to brivati (split) sugar with the formation of alcohol, carbon dioxide and other by-products and used for baking bread, alcohol, Breweries and wine-making. Mushrooms, forming organic acids, are used in textile and leather industry. Currently in medicine are widely used some fungi and many actinomyces to receive antibiotics (see).
Mushrooms as a food product is widely used in food of different countries. Used mainly plate and tubular mushrooms (printing. table).
The chemical composition of mushrooms close to the vegetables; in addition, they contain some compounds (glycogen, vitamin D, urea and other)inherent in the products of animal origin. Fresh mushrooms contains 75 - 92% of moisture. The amount of protein in mushrooms ranges from 2 to 9%. Highest protein content are mushrooms. Biological value and digestibility of protein in mushrooms low, because of the fungi of chitin, which prevents the influence of digestive enzymes. In addition to protein, nitrogen substances presents with free amino acids, ammonia nitrogen, organic bases, chitin, urea and purine bases. The fat contained in the amount of 0.3-0.8 percent, is well absorbed. In addition true fats, mushrooms contain phosphatides (special importance lecithin) and sterols. The mushrooms are many vitamins: B1, B2, PP, D, found Pantothenic and folic acid, Biotin. When dried and cooked mushrooms vitamins largely preserved. Mushrooms are characterized by high content of phosphorus, some microelements (zinc, copper), and a moderate amount of calcium. The smell of mushrooms is caused by the presence of resins, essential oils (terpenes).
Edible are about 100 species of mushrooms, mostly wild and less specially cultivated mushrooms). The content of extractive and aromatic substances causes their high taste properties and a strong stimulating effect on the secretory function of the stomach glands. Mushroom broths at its sokogonnym action exceed vegetable broths and not inferior meat. They improve appetite and thus contribute to the digestion of other foods. Caloric content of mushrooms is about 30 kcal per 100 g
Mushrooms should be harvested and sold sorted by types. Sales mix of mushrooms is prohibited. Because mushrooms are perishable, after collection, they should immediately be subjected to processing, as the retention period not more than 18-24 hour. at a temperature of no higher than 10 degrees. Barrels of salted and pickled mushrooms should be stored at temperatures from 6 to 0 degrees on the racks in the recumbent position is not more than one year. Dried mushrooms in dry ventilated warehouses withstand prolonged storage.
Sanitary inspection is to control that in processed mushrooms were not poisonous, and also for proper handling and storage. Patients with diseases of the liver and kidneys, stomach ulcers and duodenal ulcers mushrooms contraindicated.
Mushroom poisoning occurs after eating poisonous mushrooms. These include pale grebe, which has similarity with mushrooms and causes fatal poisoning, toadstools, lines, similar in appearance with morels, and other Poisonous beginning in these mushrooms are: phalloidin, amanitin, muscarin, mitotropin, galilova acid with hemolytic properties, and other poisons.
Symptoms and course: in case of poisoning by any mushrooms in the first place affected the gastrointestinal tract. The first symptoms of poisoning pale grebe develop only over 8-24 hours after a meal in the form of acute, rapidly flowing gastroenteritis (chaeropodidae), comes dehydration, convulsions, particularly in the calf muscles, acrocyanosis, collapse. The next day increases the liver, appears jaundice, urine detained. Mortality of up to 90%.
In case of poisoning by mushrooms in half an hour after eating appear nausea, vomiting, salivation, profuse sweating, abdominal cramps and diarrhea. There cerebral symptoms, dilated pupils or pupils are narrowed significantly); delirium, hallucinations, agitation, then the prostration. Recover within 1-2 days, mortality is low.
In case of poisoning lines clinical manifestations begin in 6-12 hours. after eating: acute gastroenteritis, hemolysis (see), enlarged liver, jaundice, headache, loss of consciousness, a delirium. Death can occur on the 3-4th day with symptoms of heart failure.
Treatment: at the first signs of poisoning immediately rinse the stomach (see Poisoning), induce vomiting, clean the intestines salt laxatives: bitter salt (magnesium sulphate - 20 g) or Glauber's (sodium sulphate - 20 g); enema. Inside - water suspension of activated charcoal. Urgent treatment of collapse (see). In heart failure - on the testimony of people with skin: camphor 2 ml of the 20% oil solution, korazol 1 ml of 10% solution, kordiamin 1 ml, caffeine-benzoate sodium 1 ml of 10% solution for intravenous infusion of glucose. When convulsions used chloral hydrate enema 5% solution 20-25 ml or barbitala-sodium (Medina) 10% solution of 3-5 ml, barbanel (amytal sodium) 5% solution of 3-5 ml intramuscularly. Atropine (subcutaneously to 1 ml of 0.1% solution) is used only in case of poisoning with mushrooms, when the prevailing action of muscaria: the pupils are narrowed significantly, pulse slowed sharply, severe drowsiness. If dehydration is the introduction of an isotonic solution of sodium chloride intravenously and subcutaneously to 2 l drip.
In the case of severe poisoning with mushrooms the patient to be hospitalized.


Cm. also, so-3, PL. "Emergency treatment of acute poisoning".griby
Fig. 1. White mushroom. Fig. 2. Gall mushroom. Fig. 3. Satanic fungus. Fig. 4. Boletus. Fig. 5. Boletus. Fig. 6. Orange-cap boletus. Fig. 7. Greasers. Fig. 8. Ginger. Fig. 9. Vanushka. Fig. 10. Paxil. Fig. 11. Russula green. Fig. 12. Russula red. Fig. 13. Russula yellow. Fig. 14. Russula pink. Fig. 15. The red fly agaric. Fig. 16. Muhomor pancerny. Fig. 17. Muhomor porphyry. (The letter "I" denotes poisonous mushrooms.)edible and poisonous mushrooms
Fig. 1. Armillaria autumn. Fig. 2. Armillaria summer. Fig. 3. Armillaria meadow. Fig. 4. Armillaria false. Fig. 5. Lactarius. Fig. 6. The butterflies. Fig. 7. Champignon. Fig. 8. Muhomor white. Fig. 9. Grebe pale. Fig. 10. Chanterelles. Fig. 11. Chanterelles false. Fig. 12. Chernushka. Fig. 13 and 14. Morel. Fig. 15. Strochak. Fig. 16. Raincoat. Fig. 17. Raincoat false. Fig. 18. Valuy came. Fig. 19. Valuy came false. (The letter "I" denotes poisonous mushrooms.)