Mycoplasma

Mycoplasma (synonym: Mycoplasmataceae, pleuropneumoniae microorganisms, Pleuropneumoniae like organism, PPLO) - SEM. Mycoplasmataceae; distinguished by a number of specific taxonomic traits, and refers to the order X-Mycoplasmatales [Berga (D. Bergey), 1957]. As part of SEM. Mycoplasmataceae there is only one type of Mycoplasma. Many of the symptoms of Mycoplasma reflect a marked similarity with L-form bacteria (see). Mycoplasma grow as characterized by growing into the environment colonies of three types: 1) the most common resembling the "fried egg", 2) coachhouse and 3) evenly grainy. The size of colonies vary from 0.25 to 2 mm appearance of colonies reminds L-colony-type FOR; only sometimes they differ from L-colonies smaller sizes. Separate microstructure, or PPLO-cells (the item of Klineburger-Nobel, 1962), it is highly polymorphic, they have a spherical bodies of different sizes, vakuolyarnyi and branched form, submicroscopic filterable calf size 125 - 280 MMK.
When electron microscopic study of the structure "PPLO-cells" is characterized by: * lack of a rigid cell wall and the presence of the cytoplasmic membrane thickness of about 75A, consisting of two electron-dense protein layers and inner electron-transparent - lipid. On the periphery of the cytoplasmic membrane has extracellular substance, presumably consisting of capsular material. Cytoplasm Mycoplasma consists of two layers: the electron-dense and electron-transparent. The first is located nuclear and ribosomal machine, the second intracellular inclusions in the form of electron-dense and electron-transparent Taurus - "bubbles"; similar microstructure are ekstrazellliarno. Microscopic structure PPLO-cells similar to the L-L element-colonies type FOR. Intra - and extracellular microstructure considered by many researchers as the elementary sporeproductive Taurus.
Due to the lack cell walls Mycoplasma possess plasticity, osmotic and mechanical fragility. They lose α-e-diaminopimelic, glutamine and durominebuy acid and glucosamine, resistant to antibiotics and other agents acting on the cell wall (for example, to penicillin, bicillin, lysozyme and other), and sensitive to antibiotics and other substances, which are not associated with cell wall (e.g. tetracyclines, Soaps, organic salts of gold).
Mycoplasma grow on media containing normal horse serum lipoprotein which is used by them as the nutritional factor. Whey also has a detoxifying effect on contained in the environment of substances that inhibit the growth of M. In the beginning of the process of growth due to slow synthesis of nucleoproteins M. need DNA, RNA and mucin. M. divided into enzymatic inert and enzymatic active; the last selectively fermented different carbohydrates, thin gelatin and collapsed serum, selectively symbolise the human erythrocytes, animals and birds, so as to form a - and fi-hemolysin. In accordance with the antigenic structure Meters divided into serological types within these types, they are differentiated into types.
When immunization M or after transferring mikoplazmennaya in the body are formed agglutinating, precipitating and complementative antibodies. In addition, Mycoplasma-antisera to inhibit the growth of M. This action serum does not depend on the presence of any other antibodies and not require a complement, which is why this reaction, by analogy with the corresponding action antivirus sera, often called a neutralization reaction.
SEM. M. divided into: 1) pathogenic species causing certain pathological processes, 2) conditionally pathogenic, causing latent, as a rule, does not manifested infection, and 3) saprophyticus species, pathogenic action of which is unknown (e.g., Mycoplasma soil, wastewater, excreta human and animal, mouth and so on). The study of certain indicators pathogenicity M. was discovered the ability of some species to produce hemolysin; endotoxin obtained from M. mycoides var. mycoides; also known one type M - M neurolyticum forming exotoxin neurogenic actions.
The ability to infect naturally susceptible species of Mycoplasma are differentiated into: 1) knowingly pathogenic species, is not able, however, with the direct infection of sensitive animal to call the appropriate pathological process (for example, M. mycoides var. mycoides); 2) pathogenic species that can cause a typical experimental Mycoplasma infection (for example, M neurolyticum, M. arthriticum and others); 3) pathogenic species capable of causing only latent infection activated variety reduces the body's resistance factors (this group includes most of the pathogenic M).
A group of pathogenic Meters depending on localization caused by pathological processes are divided into: 1) M - respiratory pathogens of human and animal diseases, 2) M-related diseases of the genitourinary tract, 3) M. associated with pathological processes in a complex inflammatory syndromes, 4) M - agents revmatoidnykh animal diseases, 5) M, associated with a variety of inflammatory processes.
To Mycoplasma - pathogens of respiratory diseases include: 1) M. mycoides var. mycoides (CPC contagious pleuropneumonia cattle occurring in acute and chronic form;
2) M. mycoides var. capri - exciter contagious pleuropneumonia goats and sheep;
3) M. pulmonis - exciter multiple bronchiectasis rats complicating bronchopneumonia; 4) "coccobacillary Taurus" Nelson associated with inflammatory processes of the upper respiratory tract mice, complicated by pneumonia; 5) M. gallisepticum, M. gallinarum, M. inners associated with inflammatory syndrome of respiratory organs of birds, known under the name of mycoplasmosis birds; 6) M. pneumoniae (agent Eton) - exciter abacterial-governmental pneumonia person, known as the "primary atypical pneumonia" (PAP). M. pneumoniae sometimes causes bronchitis, bronchiolitis and purulent or hemorrhagic inflammation of the middle ear, described as "miringitis bullosa". Etiological role of M. pneumoniae is proved by a considerable number of experimental, clinical-laboratory, immunological and epidemiological observations and experimental infection of volunteers. In the study of etiological structure bacterially pneumonia has been shown that quite common pneumonia, caused by M. pneumoniae (also called Mycoplasma-pneumonia).
To group M, associated with diseases of the urinary tract, include:
1) M bovigenitalium found in cows in the inflammatory processes, complicated infertility; 2) M. hominis type I and type II, associated with bacterially urethritis man, described as non-specific, negonoreiny, nongonococcal. The etiology of these urethritis are not completely understood, but there are reasons to assume that in this polietiologic group of diseases can meet urethritis caused by Mycoplasma infection. M. hominis often highlighted gynecological diseases inflammatory nature.
In the group of Mycoplasma - agents complex inflammatory syndromes are: 1) M agalactiae - the pathogen of severe disease known as agalactia goats, characterized by mamita, arthritis, conjunctivitis, flowing acute and chronic;
2) M hyorrhinis encountered in the syndrome of Glossary in pigs (arthritis, pericarditis, pleuritis, peritonitis, sometimes complicating atrophic rhinitis and pneumonia); 3) such M. hominis, which is often found in the discharge urethra in a complex inflammatory syndrome known as oratracelevel conjunctival syndrome person, or disease Reuter.
To the group M - agents revmatoidnykh diseases of animals include: 1) M. arthritidis - exciter revmatoidnogo disease rats; 2) M arthropicus cause a similar disease in mice; 3) M neurolyticum - exciter horei mice ("rolling disease"). Cm. also Bacteria.