The epidemiology (the study of the muscles)

General data
Changing the shape of the body or its parts, as well as ability to move carries out specialized muscle tissue, which consists of skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle.
Property contractility is found not only in the animal world, but also in a number of plant (Mimosa, fascinating insects), and unicellular microorganisms (oscillation flagella, amoeboid movement of cells). In the body of highly organized animals airway is not only specialized muscle tissue, but also individual cells and their parts, such as mitochondria, nucleus, cytoplasm, and other submicron structures. The essence of muscle contraction is not only the movement, but also that in a shrinking elements most efficiently converts the chemical energy of ATP * to mechanical work. When the differentiation and evolution of fabrics for the implementation of this process is formed a muscular fabric. Characteristic is the fact that, beginning with the early stages of embryogenesis, the connection of nerve cells with muscle fibers that persists throughout life. Senses, taking account of environmental numerous irritation, transmit them to the Central nervous system, which meets motor impulses, and cause! Department secretion glands. Muscles are Contracting under the control of the Central nervous system, have a formative impact not only on bone, ligaments, joints, but also on the cardiovascular system and internal organs, causing metabolism. In case of damage somatic peripheral nerve or cells of the cerebral cortex comes dystrophy striated muscles, which in this case is not subject to the human mind. Diverse life processes in the cells, the work of all systems of the body - all different forms of movement. Movements reflect the processes in the Central nervous system.
Back in 1863, at the dawn of the development of the doctrine of reflexes, I. M. Sechenov wrote: "All the endless variety of external manifestations of brain activity is finally to just the phenomenon to muscle movement" is Therefore one of the conditions of existence of organisms is their movement with the aim of nutrition, protection, reproduction, execution of varied work activities. As pointed out by F. Engels, "the Movement is considered in the most General sense of the word, i.e. understood as the form of existence of matter, as inherent matter attribute, hugging him everything that happens in the universe changes and processes, ranging from simple move and ending with thinking" 2. Thus, the movement is the basis of life of organisms of different levels of the organization.
In the complex process of movement involves not only the muscles but also all human organs, although the direct executors of the movements are the bones, joints, muscles with the nervous and vascular links.
From mechanical point of view musculoskeletal system combines the engine as the power Converter and a production machine. The structure of the locomotor system is the subject of anatomy. The study of energy in the muscle engaged in biochemistry, the study of the musculoskeletal system as a working machine is part of biomechanics. Biomechanics is the science that studies the motion, made of locomotor apparatus, from the point of view of the application of the laws of mechanics, sets the strength and mechanical properties of different tissues taking into account the anatomic-physiological features. Biomechanics allows you to set the conditions under which most effectively done useful work in the process of reducing muscle groups. Biomechanical features of the muscles will understand when describing private anatomy of the muscular system.

* In the body is the energy stored in the form of energy R-O-R-connection between the second and third remnants of phosphoric acid in the molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP for the "biochemical machines" (muscle tissue) is the source of energy as when you break the R-O-R-bond in the molecule of ATP is allocated a significant amount of energy (8-10 kcal per 1 mol). This energy is used in muscle contraction, nerve stimulation, secretory activity of cells and the synthesis of complex molecules, and so on, Therefore, the chemical energy R-O-R-connection can turn into many forms of energy, including into mechanical energy for the reduction of muscles.