Adrenal glands

The adrenal gland (the adrenal glands, glandulae suprarenales) - paired glands of internal secretion.

adrenal gland
The adrenal person:
1 - the blood vessels of the kidney and adrenal gland;
2 - the adrenal gland;
3 - kidney.

Anatomy and physiology. The adrenal glands are located at the upper pole of the kidney and look wrong tapered prism (Fig. ). Weight adrenal adult - 8-12, adrenal distinguish cerebral cortical substance. The cortex of the adrenal gland consists of three zones - glomerular, beam and mesh. Cells of cerebral napochechnikov layer are painted salts, chromic acid, and called chromaffin. They are akin to cells ganglion of the sympathetic nervous system and are part of the adrenal system (adrenal paraganglia). The adrenal krovosnabjaemah upper, middle and lower adrenal arteries, outgoing, respectively, from the bottom of the diaphragm arteries, abdominal aorta, and renal artery. Central Vienna left adrenal drains into the left renal vein, right in the lower hollow.
Innervation is by branches stray nerves and celiac plexus.
The adrenal cortex produces steroid hormones different biological effects: glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone, corticosterone, and others) are synthesized mainly in the beam area adrenal cortex and mainly affect the metabolism of carbohydrates and protein and mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) are synthesized in glomerular area and regulate water and salt exchange; steroids with androgenic, estrogenic and progesterone properties are synthesized mainly in the net zone. The function of the adrenal cortex is regulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), produced by the anterior pituitary gland.
The medulla of the adrenal gland produces catecholamines (see) - adrenaline and noradrenaline. They affect the cardiovascular system (participation, and strengthen the heart reduction, increase blood pressure), relaxes smooth muscles bronchus, the urinary bladder, mobilize receipt of glucose in the blood and thus contribute to the creation of conditions for intensive muscular work.
On the activity of the adrenal the most pronounced influence limbic structures of the brain and the hypothalamus.

scheme of blood and lymphatic vessels adrenal man
Scheme of blood and lymphatic vessels adrenal person (M. R. Sapino): 1-the network of lymphatic capillaries of the brain substance; 2 - a network of lymphatic capillaries core substance; 3-podkopchennaya lymphatic network core substance of the adrenal gland; 4-a network of lymphatic capillaries in the capsule of the adrenal gland; 5 - Central Vienna adrenal; 6-perevesnaya network of lymphatic capillaries; 7-deep discharge lymphatic vessels; 8-surface discharge lymphatic vessels; 9-blood and lymphatic capillaries of the brain substance; 10-"own" the arteries of the brain substance; 11-blood and lymphatic capillaries cortical substances; 12 - arteries, veins and outlet lymphatic vessels in the capsule adrenal gland.

Research methods. A direct study of the adrenal glands is difficult, very large tumors of the adrenal able to touch. Relatively accurate data on the location and size of the adrenal glands can be done by x-ray with the introduction of air in okolopochechnuyu fibre - supratentorial.
The study, adrenal function by determining the content of its hormones in the blood and urine is difficult and is available only to special laboratories.
The concentration of 17-oxycorticosteroids in the blood and urine allows to judge about glucocorticoid function of the adrenal cortex. About mineral-corticoides functions measured by urine aldosterone, potassium and sodium ions, about androgenic - content daily urine 17-ketosteroidov. About the function of the brain substance napochechnikov judged by the content in the blood and urine catecholamines.
Pathology. Adrenal insufficiency. Chronic adrenal insufficiency is indicated as Addison's disease (see).
Acute adrenal insufficiency may occur when physical strain, on the background of infectious diseases, surgical intervention, the patient edisonova disease. The reason it may also be bleeding into the adrenal glands when the injury or sudden cessation of hormone therapy. Clinical manifestations and treatment of acute adrenal insufficiency - see Coma, adrenal coma.