Development of the main directions in psychiatry

Throughout the long history of the development of psychiatry can be traced struggle of representatives of two directions in determining the nature of mental illness: a materialistic and idealistic. Representatives of materialistic directions of mental disorder was associated with material changes in the body, the brain; representatives idealistic destinations in attempts to explain the nature of mental pathology proceeded from the provisions of independence or concurrency mental and physical (somatic) processes. To build a specific hypotheses were attracted widespread in certain times of philosophical ideas and scientific data and observations. In ancient and middle ages explanation of the essence of mental illness or was materialistic (early psychiatry mechanistic), or explicitly idealistic. However, attempts materialistic interpretation of mental disorders excluding Dialektika-materialist understanding of the correlation between ideal and material always left the occasion and prerequisites for the development of various idealistic concepts in psychiatry. An example of this is the school of somatics, arisen in the middle of the last century. In the polemics with his opponents - school psichikos was a mental illness by the action of the impure force, they claimed that a mentally disturbed somatic system. Therefore, the "soul" cannot properly Express himself in connection with the disorder of the somatics tool. But by itself the soul is not affected by the disease.
As a General scientific progress in psychiatry was formed separate areas, schools, used for their theoretical positions clinical observations, the results of special research in psychiatry, and other disciplines. However, in certain areas, the relationship between the mental and somatic remained Central philosophical-methodological question, and depending on how it was solved, schools and directions in psychiatry was divided into materialistic and idealistic.

  • The clinical direction
  • Psychological direction
  • Biological direction