Addiction (synonym substance abuse) - pathological addiction to substances, primarily acting on the Central nervous system. Addiction is characterized by an overwhelming need for the repeated receptions of increasing doses of various substances, including drugs (see Drug), and at their absence - in the development of abstinence - range of physical and mental disorders, extremely painful, and often life-threatening drug addict. The first place due to its relative affordability and wide application take a drug related techniques pills - barbiturates (barbanel, Nembutal, Medina), the abuse of stimulants (caffeine, amphetamine, meth) and analgesic compounds (promedol, phenacetin, pyramidonum and others). Often marked polydrug - simultaneous various techniques of drugs or of drugs and alcohol.
Opium addiction. The most common cocainism, while the abuse of injected and especially the morphinism are rare.
Injected opiates inwards and parenteral, including intravenously. The clinical picture of drug abuse, growing in the use of opium, its alkaloids and derivatives, has a lot in common. The need to first raise the dose appears in the use of opiates is not later than one month after systematic drug use, often as before. At the same time increases the tolerance of the drug (tolerance), and therefore many addicts take such doses of these drugs, which are many times higher than normal fatal dose. When taking the drug arise withdrawal phenomenon. Abstinence is developing a drug addict after a few hours of the deprivation of his drug. Occurs fatigue, insomnia, sudden sweating, palpitations, watering and salivation, abdominal pain and ache in the body, joints and limbs, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. Patients become depressed, angry, often agitated and aggressive. In periods of abstinence in search of drugs, patients often commit offences and crimes. On 5-6-th day after taking drug withdrawal symptoms peak and gradually subside for the 10-14th day. However, sleep disturbance, fatigue, depression can last for several weeks.
Drug abuse arising from the abuse of drugs means. Develop in individuals who for a long time taking sleeping pills because sleep disturbances, and rarely, patients have to take sleeping pills causes the condition pleasant intoxication. Sleeping pills are usually taken orally. The need for increasing doses, tolerance and withdrawal phenomena appear in these cases, much slower than the opium drug addiction - usually after many months or even years after the beginning of the abuse of drugs. Withdrawal effects of drug addiction drugs is largely similar to those seen in the abuse of preparations of opium. However, the abuse of drugs, especially barbiturates, very often there are mood disorders, accompanied by depression and irritability, and fibrillar different muscles twitching, kollaptoidnye fainting, and with a sudden taking drugs often have large and small seizures. In some cases, when a sudden deprivation sick hypnotic-drug during abstinence may experience a brief psychosis by type of delirium or hearing (verbal) hallucinosis (see Hallucinatory syndromes).
Drug abuse arising from the abuse of stimulants of the Central nervous system. After administration of a stimulator, there is a feeling of energy, clarity of thought, increase efficiency with the pursuit of the activity. Withdrawal effects while addictive expressed lethargy, fatigue, drowsiness, low mood, decrease and lack of capacity.
Pain relievers abuse most often those who suffer from fatigue, insomnia, headaches, pains in the joints and so on Mental changes that occur with long-term use of painkillers, showing the changeability of mood, easy excitability. You may experience seizures epileptiformnye.
Galereynaya. Hashish (cannabis, plan, marijuana) is the drug of Indian hemp mixed with tobacco; more rarely take the powder inside. When taking the drug occurs value-blissful mood with a sense of stopping time, fantastic visual illusions (see), often colour perception of sounds. In case of significant poisoning occur delirious fantastic picture and pleasant for the patient contents. Withdrawal phenomenon are weak and are determined transient shallow asthenia.
Cocainism (cocaine) currently almost never occurs.
With long-term abuse of drugs, especially drugs opium and barbiturates, there are distinct personality changes. The interests of the patient are absorbed by the need to obtain drugs, there is an emotional coarseness, appears falsity, aspiration to a parasitic existence, lost interest in the work. Personality changes when addiction is expressed is always greater than when alcohol abuse.
Treatment. Drug addicts are subject to compulsory hospitalization in a psychiatric hospital, where treatment is carried out in stages. The first stage of taking the drug and relief of withdrawal phenomena, the second stage - elimination of the consequences of chronic intoxication and the third stage is to develop the patient has the right to labour and social facilities, which started in the hospital and continued later in a psychiatric clinic.
Drug abuse prevention is to control the production and sale of drugs, and to conduct an extensive educational work among medical personnel and the population to explain the danger of unjustified assignments and techniques of medicines, which in long-term use can cause addiction.