Violations of ovarian-menstrual cycle

The beginning of a correct understanding of menstrual function as a set of recurrent (cyclic) functional changes taking place in the woman's body was laid D. O. Ott. He first formulated the "law of periodicity wave-like fluctuations of tension vital processes in the body, women".
As is known, the periodic appearance of menstruation is closely connected with the cyclic processes that occur in the ovary and are finally reduced to the maturation of primordial follicles and transfer them to grafovi follicles to cracking Grafova follicle and the subsequent development of the yellow body. Timeliness and periodicity of what is happening in the ovary processes determine the normal menstrual cycle both in terms of the time of the onset of menstruation, or in terms of its duration and the number of loose blood.
Taking into account that the above processes are accompanied by a selection in the blood of oestrogen hormones and hormone yellow body, in questions of regulation of menstrual cycles, the main emphasis was placed on hormonal regulation.
Recently proved that the regulation of ovarian and associated with the menstrual cycle important role of the hypothalamic-pituitary mechanisms, and environmental factors influencing these mechanisms indirectly through the cerebral cortex.
It is known that environmental conditions such as climatic conditions, the General conditions of life and nutrition, have a large impact on the timing of puberty, the female body and the glands of internal secretion (in particular, the ovaries). Well it is also known that the function of the endocrine glands, ovaries and in particular of the pituitary is closely connected with the state of the nervous system, and the higher its Department - a bark of the big hemispheres. Enough, for example, to recall the so-called amenorrhea military Burden incurred by women on grounds of injury psychogenic. Just said made to change the view of the endocrine glands such as a closed system which is not exposed to external influences, and to consider them to be associated with the function of the body as an organic whole.
Therefore, disorders of menstruation us should be regarded as the result of a disease of the entire organism.
Etiological factors disorders of the menstrual cycle can be quite different. Often they are caused by various gynecological diseases, but it must be borne in mind that often menstrual disorders are caused by diseases that are directly relevant to the sexual organs. Menstrual dysfunction can occur on the grounds of acute and chronic infections, cardiovascular diseases, diseases of the blood, the soil diseases of the endocrine glands, on the grounds of diseases of the nervous system. Finally, menstrual dysfunction can be caused by some General living conditions (war related experiences and malnutrition).
As is known, menstruation in healthy women appear every 3-4 weeks, continue for 3-5 days, without causing violations of the General condition of the organism. This type of menstruation is called normal menstruation. For disorders of the menstrual cycle may experience the following deviations:
1) too small amount of blood during menstruation is scarce menstruation (hypomania); if this increase and the intervals between periods, then we say about oligomenoree;
2) absence of menstruation - amenorrhea;
3) reduction of the intervals between periods, frequent menstruation - polimenorea;
4) excessive menstruation, preserving normal space between monthly or last longer than usual number of days - menorrhagia;
5) painful menstruation - dysmenorrhea.
Sometimes in the period of puberty is necessary to observe a very heavy bleeding in girls, which can lead to the development of severe anemia. The cause of these so-called juvenile bleeding are functional disorders of the endocrine glands on the grounds of diseases such as hyperthyroidism, a disease with metabolic disorders (obesity, and others).
To disorders of menstruation also include cases too early onset of menstruation (menstruatio praecox), which is caused by premature puberty. So, for example, described cases the onset of menstruation in girls 9-10 years and even earlier; in such cases is observed in the early appearance of secondary sexual characteristics (the appearance of pubic hairs and armpits, the increasing size of the pelvis, the development of external genital organs, and the mammary glands).
Etiology premature puberty is not always clear. Describes many cases when such anomaly was observed in girls suffering from ovarian tumours (usually teratoma), and tumors of the pituitary gland, adrenal glands, and so on, that these tumors were the cause of premature menstruation, demonstrated by the fact that in some cases removing them led to the cessation of menstruation, to reduce the breast and even the disappearance of pubic hairs.
In contrast too early onset of menstruation there are cases when menstruation comes too late (on 20-21-year), the so-called delayed menstruation (menstruatio tarda).
Such delay menstruation indicates late puberty, of late the beginning of functioning of the ovaries.
Often in such cases, there are signs of pronounced infantilism.