The outer ear

the ear of a person
Fig. 1. The auricle of the person (construction): 1 - the trestle; 2 - the ear canal; 3 - mikasalla tenderloin; 4 protivogaze; 5 - the lobe of the ear; and 8 - curl; 7 - the antihelix.
Fig. 2. Outer and middle ear: 1 - the ear canal; 2 - eardrum; 3-hammer; 4 - the anvil; 5 - stapes; 6 - tympanic cavity; 7 - Strelkova muscle; 8 - reel part of the temporal bone; 9 - the auricle.

The external ear consists of auricle and external acoustic meatus (Fig. 1 and 2). A large part of the ear is cartilaginous skeleton, covered with nadgradnja and skin. The lower part of it - lobe - formed fatty tissue, covered with skin. The muscles of the ear rudimentary. The cavity of the ear goes into the ear canal, which is a tube oval section length on average (adult) about 2.5 see the diameter of the external ear canal varies (up to 0,7-1 cm), not only between individuals, but in different areas. The ear canal consists of fibrous cartilage and bone departments. Length reaches the last 16 mm Fibrous cartilage Department (and partially bone) is bounded from below and on the front, with the parotid glands (see the Salivary glands). Therefore sometimes happens a breakthrough ulcer parotid glands in the ear canal through the existing so-called Santorini slit. The front wall of the external ear canal borders the joint of the lower jaw. This explains the severe pain while chewing movements in the presence of in ear canal furuncle. Trauma to the lower jaw may be accompanied by damage to the front of the lower wall of the external acoustic meatus. The back bone wall of the external acoustic meatus formed the front wall of the mastoid process (see the middle ear); in the depth of it is the facial nerve. Upper wall borders with the middle cranial fossa. The blood supply to the ear and fibrous cartilage of the Department of external ear canal is carried out by the branches of the system of the external carotid artery, bone - branches of internal maxillary artery. The auricle innerviruetsya branches of the upper cervical plexus, facial, wandering and trigeminal nerves, external auditory meatus - branches wandering and trigeminal nerves.
Leather lining the fibrous cartilage part of the external ear canal, has hairs and carmenenne gland (giving ear sulfur). Leather bony part thinned, devoid of hair, and glands.
Pathology. Abnormalities of the outer ear is manifested in the reduction or increase its size (microtia and microtia), zaradenie (atresia) of the ear canal, the presence of a fistula. Fistulas are often slightly higher trestle. From their holes sometimes is highlighted in yellow viscous liquid. In addition to congenital, there is a scar atresia and stricture after burns and injuries. From skin diseases may cause dermatitis (see), eczema (see), furuncle (see), rojistoe inflammation (see Erysipelas). The infection of cracks and abrasions of the skin of the ear canal may develop inflammation of the outer ear (see). A special form of external otitis are fungal (see Atomikos). With the penetration of the infection in nahradnich auricle is formed of perihodit. Functional disorders secretion ceremonially and sebaceous glands lead to the formation of earwax (see). When severe blunt force trauma to the ear may develop otematata (see). Children often foreign body (see). As a result osteodystrophies processes in the outer ear canal meet particular bone of education - exostosis (see).