The population is comprised of people who live within the territory.
For successful implementation of tasks in the field of health care it is important to know the number of population, its composition by sex, age and demographic processes - fertility, mortality, migration (see Demographics and physical development. The absence of these data complicates the establishment of measures for the protection of the health of different population groups - children of preschool and school age, women and other population Data are one of the most important elements of calculation of a number of health indicators, including morbidity. The availability of these data allows to judge accurately the state of health of these contingents. Knowledge of the population, its age and sex and production patterns, national composition, the cultural level, etc. need for science-based perspective planning of health services as a whole on the country and its separate regions.
For each economic formation has its own special laws population has a historic character. The main features of socialist law of the population are full employment and rational use of working-age population in socially useful work to improve the material and cultural standard of living free from exploitation of the population, development of physical and spiritual abilities of each person, continuous improvement of the health of the population. Socialist law of the population presupposes concern about the protection of motherhood and childhood, upbringing of healthy young generation, creation of conditions for natural population growth.
The population of the world (1970) - 3632 million (the number of men and women almost equally). Children (0-14 years) constitute 34%, ages 15-59 - 58%, 60 years and older - 8%.
The great Patriotic war (1941 -1945, claimed over 20 million lives of the Soviet people and had a negative impact on the processes of population reproduction. However, recovery in the shortest possible time in the postwar years, the national economy, a number of measures on strengthening of protection of motherhood and childhood, to expand the network of medical institutions and improving the welfare of the population has led to an increase in the total population of the USSR.
The main source of information about the population is the population census (see).
The population of the USSR (estimated at 1 January 1972) - 246,3 million people, the city is 142,5 million, rural - 103 million; men 46,2%, women 53,8%. Children up to 15 years inclusive - 28,3% ; individuals 16 to 59 years - 59,3%; 60 years of age or older and 12.4%. This population increase is also due to reduced mortality (especially in children).
Cm. also the Birth rate, death rate.