Sodium

  • Drugs sodium
  • Sodium (Natrium, Na) is a chemical element of group I of the periodic system of elements of D. I. Mendeleyev, the sequence number is 11, the atomic mass (weight) - 22,9898. Has a stable isotope with mass number 23 and radioactive isotopes with mass numbers 21, 22, 24, 25. In nature exists only as compounds. Compounds of sodium are part of all living organisms. In the body of sodium found primarily in the form of chlorides, carbonates and phosphates.
    Sodium is quantitatively the predominant cation in the plasma and tissue fluids , and plays a significant role in maintaining the osmotic pressure (see) in these fluids, and thus, in the exchange of water between the cells and the extracellular space (see minerals, Mineral obla)room.The sodium ions increase the swelling of proteins and thus promote water retention fabrics. Sodium ions play a role in reducing skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle. Sodium involved in maintaining acid-base balance. Daily human need in sodium - 2, the Absorption of sodium, trapped in the body with food, mainly occurs in the small intestine, the elimination from the body is mainly kidneys. The mechanisms of regulation of sodium balance a large part takes hormone crust napochechnikov - aldosterone. Sodium deficiency most often occurs when some kidney disease, diabetes, edisonova disease, in violation of drinking regime (see), as well as when working in hot shops. The increase in total body sodium sometimes occurs by tumors of the Central nervous system and head injuries.
    Radioactive sodium. Most wide application in medicine and biology received Na24 (half life T= 15,06 hours); the disintegration of emits 7-quanta with energy was 2.76 1.38 and MeV and 6-particles with an energy of 1.39 MeV.
    Introduced in the blood stream Na24 spreads throughout the body and may be registered in special radiometric equipment. With the help of Na24 determine the speed of blood flow in various parts of the large and the small circle of blood circulation, exploring exchange processes between blood and tissues. For the study of blood flow in a large circle circulation patient is injected to 70 mccoury Na24 in 0.2 ml izotoniceski solution of sodium chloride and register the rate of passage of radioactive blood through any of the studied segment of the vascular system. This method is used for the diagnosis erased forms of decompensation of heart, to determine where in the obliteration when Andar-tereifah, to identify the limits of surgical amputation or level of embolectomy, to assess the effectiveness of treatment of vascular diseases. To study blood circulation in a small circle adult is usually injected into the jugular vein 7 -10 mccoury Na24 in 0.2 ml izotoniceski solution of sodium chloride. Special equipment was installed over an area of the heart, lets get a graphical record of the passage of waves of radioactivity via cavities of the heart and vessels of lesser circulation. The modified curve can be expressed hypertension, heart disease, diffuse-focus the pneumosclerosis , etc.
    For the study of tissue blood flow 1-2 mccoury Na24 in 0.2 ml izotoniceski solution of sodium chloride is injected intradermally, subcutaneously or intramuscularly, and then on a place of introduction of the measure the decline of radioactivity over a period of time. The intensity of the decline of radioactivity characterizes the speed of transition Na24 of fabric depot into the blood stream. The method used in the diagnosis of hypertension, atherosclerosis, rheumatic heart disease, heart diseases, disorders of water exchange and other Na24 are used for intracavitary radiotherapy (see) tumors of the bladder. For these purposes, 60 - 100 ml containing 50 - 60 mkori Na24, introduced at some time in the tank catheters in the cavity of the bladder. Treatment repeated every 2-3 days up to the total cumulative dose of 3000 - 6000 rub.
    All manipulations with Na24 should be carried out for the lead foil screens using protective remote equipment (see Radiology Department, Antiradiation protection).