Feeding premature babies

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Many nutrition premature infants remain controversial and unresolved. Discusses the time of the first feeding, infant feeding practices, the number of necessary food, the need for essential nutrients and energy and other
Regarding the timing of the first feeding of premature child in the literature, there is no consensus. There are proponents of early feeding premature - in 6-12 h after birth [Skvortsova Century A. and others, 1986]. This reduces the possibility of developing dehydration, hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, there is a faster increase of body weight. Argument in favor of early feeding is the fact that in case of late feeding initial body weight loss is greater nitrogen balance is growing slowly, can develop disorders, marked catabolism of tissue proteins etc.
Supporters of the late feeding (via 36-72 hours) argue recommendations indicating the possibility for early feeding, vomiting, regurgitation and aspiration of food with the subsequent development of pneumonia. Russian pediatricians consider it expedient to feed premature baby in 6-12 h after birth. While the question about the possibility of breastfeeding is solved individually. With the availability of modern infant incubators in case of impossibility by clinical indications to implement feeding in the first 6-12 h a premature baby can be left without power for up to 24 h, while ensuring adequate fluid intake enteral or parenteral route. In severe condition of premature baby (frequent vomiting, transferred asphyxia, neurological symptoms) first feeding can be done through 36-48 hours In these cases it is necessary to strictly observe the drinking regime or to resort to infusion therapy.
Children with a deep degree of prematurity are usually not sucking and even swallowing reflex. Sucking activity premature reduced due to the underdevelopment sucking reflex, weakness sucking muscles and General lethargy [Ghai O., 1986]. Some authors recommend such children to apply parenteral nutrition with gradual transition to enteral [Badson E. E. and others, 1979]. In practice, however, the feeding of children with body weight below 1200-1300 g implemented by nasogastric tube. In the last recommended a nasogastric to enter the supply of constant drip method, which significantly increases the efficiency of feeding and improves the absorption of essential nutrients [Skvortsova Century A. and others, 1986].
In connection with threat of aspiration of food is not recommended to feed premature baby of the pipette.
In the implementation of feeding through a tube should remember that in process of improvement in the appearance of the active sucking child should translate to bottle-feeding, and then gradually be put to the breast. Prolonged use of a probe has its negative sides, as this way of feeding can interfere with the normal development of the processes of digestion, inhibits the production sucking reflex, reduces physiological activity during feeding. To prevent secondary asphyxia babies before and after feeding inhalations humidified oxygen 3-5 minutes
Not to breastfeed are moving gradually, first put your baby on 1-2 feeding, and during the rest of feedings give milk from a bottle. Then put to the breast during each feeding, strictly considering the number sucked milk (weighting before and after feeding). If the child is tired and can't suck enough breast milk, its finish feeding from a bottle.