Failure butterfly valve

  • The pathogenesis of disorders of blood circulation
  • Classification of degrees of compensation blemish
  • Electrocardiographic study
  • Phonocardiographic study
  • Polycardiography study
  • Hemodynamic changes in failure of the mitral valve (on the basis of a study of theostearroma and spirogram)
  • X-ray examination
  • Diagnosis and differential diagnosis
  • The course and prognosis
  • Failure butterfly valve - insufficientia valvulae mitralis - is the most common acquired heart disease in children.
    Etiology. The cause of defect is most often rheumatism, in some cases, mitral valve insufficiency may occur when the kollagenozov: systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and also injuries to the heart. It is possible and birth defect.
    Dissemination. According to O. D. Sokolova-Ponomareva and E. A. Nadezhdino (1969), "pure mitral valve insufficiency was found in 26.8% of children suffering from acquired heart diseases. Similar statistics results and G. Kiss (1962). N. I. Aleksandrov (1975) on the basis of the analysis of outpatient cards of children with acquired heart diseases in Leningrad found a significant prevalence of frequency clean failure of the mitral valve, which accounted for 73% of all acquired heart diseases. With the progression of rheumatic process is usually insufficient mitral valve joined stenosis atrioventricular holes, and frequency clean mitral insufficiency among adolescents in this study was reduced to 22%. In adult patients isolated mitral valve insufficiency occurs even more rarely, constituting, according to C. X. Vasilenko (1972), only 9%, at the same time, an increasing number of patients with combined mitral disease.
    According to the cardiological Department of the hospital. K. A. St Petersburg and cardiological sanatorium "Labor reserves of 220 children of 7-14 years of age suffering from acquired heart diseases, clean mitral valve was observed in 136 children (61,8%).
    Pathological anatomy. As is known, the mitral valve is a complex structure consisting of two valves - anteromedial and back with connective tissue basis and covered on both sides of the endocardium, two papillary muscle, tendon fibers and fibrous atrioventricular rings. At the level of the annulus, is located atrioventricular hole oval, square 4-6, see
    Due to transfer of rheumatic valvulitis valve apparatus changes: the leaflets of the valve are deformed, shrink, their edges zadubrivtsi, resulting line closure becomes uneven. Along with this change and subvalvular apparatus: shortened tendinous sutures sklerosiruta papillary muscles. Scarring valve, shortening tendon threads make it impossible for full closing of the valves. Often there is also an extension of the fibrous ring associated with the expansion of left ventricular cavity. Significant calcification of the mitral valve when "clean" mitral insufficiency is rare (C. E. Nezlin, 1968; N. M. Amosov et al., 1972; B. I. Burakovsky, and others, 1972; M. A. ivanytska et al., 1975).
    At postmortem examination of the heart determined a sharp increase in the size of the left atrium and the extension and left ventricular hypertrophy. Due to increased pressure in the pulmonary circulation is observed and right ventricular hypertrophy, and sometimes the extension of the right ventricle.