Oil industry

The oil industry is a sector of national economy, uniting the exploration, drilling, oil production (land and marine), its processing, storage, transportation and petrochemical production.
In the oil industry work (well drilling, mining) are carried out mainly under the open sky (the impact of high and low temperatures). There are some physically demanding operations (especially in drilling and repair equipment), performed in the uncomfortable position of the body associated with the risk of injury.
The impact of the release of oil (hydrocarbons, and in the extraction of some of sulfur crude oil - and also hydrogen sulphide) drillers can be in cases of emergency. During production as oil and gas can be used on almost all stages of technological process. Most of gaseously work inside the tanks, cisterns, distribution boxes, compressors. Gaseously all the low places. In some processes, workers are exposed to noise, vapors of acids, dust cement and clay. When insufficient mechanization of possible contamination of the skin and clothing oil and lubricating oils.
Employees of the geophysical party in contact with ionizing radiation.
Refineries many processes of oil and gas processing is automated. But when the imperfection of technology and failure prevention measures possible impact on the workers of harmful vapours and gases (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and in the processing of sulfur crude - sulfide, mercaptans, sulphuric and sulphurous gases), high temperature and radiation from heated surfaces of equipment, intense noise, catalyst dust. Vapours and gases can enter the body through the respiratory system and liquid substances - affect the skin; however, some substances (gasoline, benzene, dichloromethane, ethyl fluid, and others) can enter the body through intact skin. Most of harmful substances has a narcotic effect; aldehydes, ketones, alcohols irritant action on the mucous membranes of eyes and respiratory tract, and phenols and acid - prijigatm action. Oil and oil products may cause dermatitis (see), folliculitis, the keratoses (see), in some cases-papillomas, in rare cases, skin cancer.
Acute poisoning working in the oil industry are rare, mainly in emergency situations. Especially life-threatening acute poisoning by hydrogen sulfide. Possible cases of chronic intoxication, particularly when working with mnogomernoi oil (functional and organic changes in the Central nervous system, blood changes, arterial hypotension, changes in the myocardium). Intoxication products, sweet crude may develop when a large work experience and has a mild case. Adverse health factors also contribute to the General improvement of unprofessional morbidity.
Measures first aid at acute poisoning: remove victim from contaminated area, artificial respiration to resume random breath or see the obvious signs of death, oxygen inhalation, fast delivery person in a medical establishment.
Basic preventive measures. Technical rationalization: a comprehensive and partial automation, remote control them; measures to cease the emission of gases into the atmosphere, protection of soil from pollution; sealing and "disclosure" of equipment - placing it on the open areas (with a mandatory provision of timely and adequate heating employees); perfect sealing equipment; replacement of steam pumps pumps with electric motors.
Sanitary-technical activities: natural ventilation (aeration) in premises with a heat excess. Artificial ventilation - supply-and-exhaust (mainly with local suction).
Individual protection means: insulating gas masks when working inside of tanks, reservoirs and etc.); filter masks; preventive paste for skin protection against oil products, water solutions of acids and alkalis; sufficient proof and explosion-proof lighting, sanitary-household premises and devices, differentiated for different industries; rational clothing and footwear; preliminary and periodic medical examinations; extraordinary medical examinations according to the testimony; prevention of ionizing radiation.
Systematic control over the sanitary conditions of work performed sanitary-epidemiological stations, medical units and laboratories of interest.