Disorders of regulation of activity of a stomach and a duodenal gut

Nervous factors. I. P. Pavlov was first established, that the bark of the big hemispheres of a brain effect on gastric secretion, causing her nervous phase. Further Pavlovskaya school psychologists proved the existence of functional links between the cortex and the inner organs, including the digestive system. I. T. Curtin and A. A. Andreev (1965) when the combination of the impact of the ' ssilki" according to Pavlov and peptic factor caused ulcers in the gastro-duodenal zone.
As a result of complex interactions between stimuli extero - and interoreceptors, in the cortex of the brain creates the optimal ratio between the processes of excitation and inhibition, which defines the normal functioning of the digestive system and all organism as a whole. Under the influence of different kinds of negative emotions, continuous overvoltage at work, injuries, and pathological impulses coming from the internal organs, in the bark could lead to disintegration between the processes of excitation and inhibition, which leads to the depletion of cellular elements of the crust and positive induction of subcortical centers. The hypothalamus produces congestive center of excitement, disturbed activity of wandering nerve, followed by disorders of the main functions of gastroduodenal system with the development of the defect mucous membranes.
In the modern view nerve pathway stress is schematically, axis: the cerebral cortex - interstitial brain - wandering nerve - wandering nerves to the stomach.
The value of nerve factor in the development of peptic ulcer disease is confirmed by experiments Brodie (1962), who showed that in conditions of the stress caused by the forced immobilization in rats, there were some defects mucous membrane stomach, rather reminiscent of erosion. Vagotomy and introduction of tranquilizers reduces the severity of pathological changes in the stomach. Author (1968) believes that the mechanism of occurrence of "stress ulcers" is not clear, but some importance increased acidity, lowering activity regeneration of epithelial cells, and circulatory disorders in the stomach.
During the last years (P., the Rich man al., 1958, 1963; Murakami, Nishisaki, 1965) was the role of the hypothalamus in the regulation of gastric secretion and in the formation of peptic ulcers. The latter easily occurred with long-term, chronic stimulation of the hypothalamus centres. Smith and Brooks (1967) give an overview of recent work on the participation of the hypothalamus in the regulation of gastric secretion. The most progressive direction in this area is that which combines traditional physiological observations with the analysis of behavioral reactions in animals.
The pathogenic significance of wandering, nerve in the development of peptic ulcer disease is determined by its decisive role in all phases of gastric secretion. With increased vagal tone is pathological "bombing" of the stomach nerve impulses, which leads to the formation of the so-called "irritable stomach with a marked increase in the activity of acid-peptic factor and motor activity. When gastric ulcer is the tone of the vagus nerve can be lowered, and a corresponding effect on the functional and motor activity of the stomach. Along with this, the vagus nerve changes the reactivity of gastric glands to various stimuli (histamine, gastrin, food, ekstrasistolia hormones and other). This action is called "enabling" ("permissive role" Schay and Sun, 1963).
In pathological terms "direct" and "allow" action is carried out simultaneously, mutually reinforcing each other.
It is established that the transfer of excitation in the secretory cells of nerve endings of the vagus nerve is by acetylcholine. I. P. Sklyarov (1966) in the experiment was observed by the increase in the concentration of the latter in the glandular tissue of the stomach during a meal at imaginary feeding and stimulation wandering nerve. Significantly, which, along with the associated increase acetylcholine, increases the amount of free acetylcholine, which comes in gastric juice. When reflex excitation glands cholinesterase activity in the glandular tissue of the stomach is reduced, which provides a more prolonged action of the mediator. After resection of the stomach cholinesterase activity in the cult increases, combined with the stand achlorhydria.
One of the factors that play a role in the regulation of cholinergic activity of the blood, is the transition of acetylcholine from the active, free-form in the related inactive. G. N. Kassil (1964) showed that the red blood cells have the ability to temporarily associate acetylcholine.
L. Y. Zhavoronkova and D. I. Shagal (1968) found that in patients with peptic ulcer processes inactivation of increased amounts of acetylcholine in the blood go in 2 directions: increase cholinesterase activity of the blood and increase sorption mediator erythrocytes. Lack of effective system of inactivation of patients with difficult complex therapy. In case of stable remission acetylcholine is normalized, cholinesterase activity remains high, and the phenomenon of acetylcholine binding erythrocytes is within norm.
Thus, among the reasons and mechanisms of development of peptic ulcer disease of the nervous system in the Central and autonomic its sections are leading the way, creating all prerequisites for ulcer formation.