There were no children without ancestors

Nothing comes out of nothing, and the Harvey (as, probably, each scientist) were predecessors.
400 years before, I. E. medical science of ancient Greece for the first time systematized Hippocrates, which to this day is considered the father of medicine. "Hippocratic collection" more than two millennia served as the world textbook of medicine and today contains a lot of "timeless truths. Steadfastly remained ethical beginning of the collection, the essence of which lies in the basis of known "Hippocratic Oath".
The extraordinary depth of knowledge of the father of medicine was achieved empirically, without the help of a scientific experiment - an integral part of modern science. Hippocrates, in particular, had a surprisingly subtle art of the study of the pulse. It was one of the foundations of its diagnostic skills. Awkward to admit, but in the next century medicine has lost a considerable part of these skills and although today the experienced physician can learn a lot about the patient, Palmira its radial artery. As for the rhythm of the heartbeat, then this aspect of the question is quite perfectly solved with a computer. The more surprising is the art of Hippocrates, distinguished for about a hundred varieties of pulse. However, doctors of the Ancient East were also known secrets of this kind.
If Hippocrates (about 460-377 BC) had some of the experiment, the Roman physician Galen (about 130-200) was not alien to vivisection. It brought him closer to the correct notions of circulation, although he was greatly mistaken. The most ancient doctors believed that in the arteries contains air, because the blood in the left half of the heart was flowing from the pulmonary veins, arteries corpses are usually not seen blood (probably because of their spasm), and Vienna's always contain blood: Galen decided this question, having cut an artery animal between the two ligatures, and seeing nothing but the blood in the vessel there. But Claudius Galen was unknown, the direction in which the blood flows through the arteries and veins, and the doctor concluded that in those in other blood vessels can be both centripetal and centrifugal.
Galen was the last great scientist of antiquity. With the advent of the middle ages experiment died, he began to reign scholasticism and dogmatism. The greatest monuments of ancient science and literature were destroyed.
In the preservation of the ancient art of role of the Arabs who are over 75 years (VII-VIII century) won Arabia, Egypt, Syria, Judea, Mesopotamia, Persia, Northern coast of Africa, part of the Byzantine Empire, India, a number of Mediterranean Islands crossed the Strait of Gibraltar (by the way, Gebr al-tar means "Mountain of Tariq"- one of the Arab leaders), moved to Spain, then to France, where they are in 732 stopped Charles Martel. The Arabs were very active in all the captured lands, especially in Spain. The influence of the Arabs spread to the Northern part of Italy. They willingly accepted the cultural heritage of the Golden age of Greece and not only kept this knowledge, but also to spread them throughout the conquered territory. I can only wonder how preserved the ancient Greeks, despite multiple translations for Syrian, Persian and Arabian languages. Anyway, Arab invasion brought science and culture considerable benefit in accordance with the old Arabic Proverbs that udder: "the wisdom of the world - the lost sheep, the lost believers; return it to the world, at least from the hands of the infidels" or "Who goes to the path for the sake of science, that God will ease the way to heaven".
In IX century the centre of the Persian education - Baghdad with its University, which was supported by Harun al-Rashid, and then his son.
Today it is clear that in darweesh period of the Eastern peoples was far ahead of the Europeans for medical and physiological knowledge. This proves the ancient Egyptian papyrus and cuneiform monuments of Ancient Babylon, and other archaeological finds. One of the brightest representatives of the Eastern science - Avicenna (Latin name of Ibn-Sina). Manuscripts Arab scholar of the XIII century, Ibn-al-Nafisa, which became known in Europe only recently, contain accurate description of the pulmonary circulation. In Europe the discovery of the pulmonary circulation until this is usually attributed to the Spanish researcher Miguel Servet the (1553 year), burnt by the efforts of Jean Calvin in Geneva, together with his book "on the beams of raw straw", as stated the verdict. Seven years after the execution was published posthumously book Rialta Colomba, compatriot Servet. Colombes also correctly described pulmonary circulation. As there is evidence of contemporaries that Colombes presented their data in lectures in 1545, there is reason to assume that the priority in the discovery belongs to the Colomba, which Servet studied.
Three copies of the book Servet reached our days. The first of them was found in England after 150 years after the burning Servet. As rightly said Mikhail Bulgakov, manuscripts do not burn.
Perhaps the earliest written evidence of advanced medicine, known to us,is so-called the ebers papyrus found during excavations in Egypt. Papyrus contains amazing information about Imhotep, the adviser of the third dynasty Pharaoh Djoser, who lived in the XXVIII century BC Imhotep was considered the greatest sage of Ancient Egypt. He was not only the great physician, but also a Builder of the first pyramid. There are some written records (in modern medical language). They are stunning depth knowledge of a man who lived almost five thousand years ago. Here is what is written on the heart: "no matter what part of the body nor put you hand - everywhere hear the heart, for it not only beats in any organ, but also specifies the path to each of them." Only through 3,000 years of ancient medicine perceive that the pulse artery coincides with the heart beats.
The ancient Egyptians kept the memory about Imhotep more than 1000 years, worshipped him and erected in his honor temples, believed the earth from his grave healing, but his knowledge was lost, and by the beginning of the flowering of the ancient culture of the Greeks and Romans had to start the science almost from scratch.