The handicap is the loss of ability to work due to illness, accident or other reasons.
There are permanent (or long) and temporary disability. Permanent or long-term disability - see Disability. Temporary disability can be full or partial, and is reversible, i.e. the ability to work can be restored in a relatively short time.
When fully temporary disability lost the ability to do any work and who need special mode (bedding, home). At partial temporary disability who is unable to perform their normal professional work, but without prejudice to health can do other work.
There are temporary disability for the following reasons.
1. Disability as a result of disease is the most frequent type of disability, when the dysfunction caused by a disease, makes it impossible to perform labour processes whole or in part. The establishment of temporary disability is an important part of diagnosis and treatment. Underestimation of violations of labour functions reduces the effectiveness of treatment; on the other hand, any unjustified dismissal from work detrimental to the public production.
Sick leave at the continuous course of the disease is issued for the term up to four months and five months in the course of the disease with breaks, after which the clinic is obliged to refer the patient in VTEC.
Temporary disability in connection with the operation of abortion sick leave from the first day of incapacity to work shall be issued to the workers, employees and collective farmers, the earnings of which does not exceed 60 roubles a month and, if the operation of therapeutic abortion or spontaneous abortion, regardless of income. In other cases, due to abortion is a disability certificate is issued, starting from the eleventh day.
Employed persons with disabilities, regardless of the degree of disability and the nature of the disease that caused disability, sick leave under the overall disease is issued not more than for two consecutive months and three months in a calendar year. This does not apply to employment injuries and occupational diseases, in which the disability certificate is issued for the whole period until recovery or until the revision of the disability group in connection with the new disease.
2. Disability due to an accident at work and at home. Accidents, work-related, and household are considered separately. Per accident, associated with the work, the administration of the enterprise or institution, is of a special act, stating the time, place, reasons and circumstances of an accident.
In case of accident on manufacture of a disability certificate is issued on the first day of disability until its restoration. In an accident in the home - from the sixth day and in the first five days of release from work is certified with a special certificate.
3. Disability during pregnancy and after childbirth. In these cases, workers, employees and collective farmers are granted paid leave of 56 days before the birth and 56 days after the birth, regardless of seniority. In pathological birth, or birth of two or more children the duration of maternity leave is increased to 70 days.
4. Disability in the quarantine if the worker is dismissed due particularly contagious disease among persons with whom he was in contact.
5. Disability-related dismissal from work of people - carriers of pathogens of infectious diseases (on a special list approved by the trade unions and the Ministry of health of the USSR), if these persons are occupied in the manufacture of food products, work on the enterprises of trade and public catering and come in contact with food, which is in the clear.
6. Disability caused by the need to care for a sick family member if there is no one to care for the sick and hospitalization is not. In these cases, the disability certificate is issued for up to three days. If necessary care for a sick child under the age of two years, the disability certificate issued mother and when other non-working family members.
7. Disability-related direction for sanatorium treatment.
The disability certificate is issued only for missing for the next vacation days, i.e., taking into account holidays and travel time to the resort and back, under the condition the need of sanatorium-resort treatment, availability of a sanatorium card and the permit issued by the funds of social insurance. In case of purchase vouchers, otherwise the disability certificate is not issued (with the exception of patients with active form of tuberculosis, which can get a voucher to a sanatorium for tuberculosis patients).
In addition, there are partial disability of patients with tuberculosis or occupational disease, requiring the temporary transfer to another job. In these cases, you will receive sick leave, which is paid additionally the difference in wages.
Rules for issuing sick leave established by the Instruction of trade unions and of national health Committee of the USSR approved the CPC of the USSR on August 14, 1937, and subsequent amendments and additions.
The reduction of disease and injury, most often leading to temporary disability, is a national task, as with disabilities are not only spending on benefits; it causes some damage to public production. Prevention of disability is primarily the prevention of diseases and accidents; significant role in this matter belongs to the middle medical personnel, which is under the supervision of a physician is working to enhance the effectiveness of treatment and preventive measures, to improve conditions of work and life, safety, employment (see), and health-building activities.
Effective fight against disability is impossible without knowledge of its causes, finding that facilitates the recording and analysis of statistical data, in particular on the medical health units; a large role in these processes belongs to the middle medical staff.
Cm. also, the disability certificate, Social insurance, Examination.