Neuritis - nerve inflammation, accompanied motor, sensory and vasomotor-trophic disorders.
Morphologically can be expressed in the lung inflammatory process with swelling of the nerve or serious damage from the collapse of the myelin sheaths of nerve and axial cylinders. Depending on the degree of destruction of nerve suffer its functions, up to a full stop conduction of nerve impulses through the nerve. One of the objective evidence of nerve damage is a perversion or disappearance of elektrovozoremontnij nerve trunk.
Neuritis occurs in infectious diseases (flu, fever), exogenous and endogenous intoxication (alcohol, lead, mercury), metabolic disorders (diabetes, gout), injuries (for example, after crushing planted under his head and hands in a state of intoxication or after surgery under General anesthesia, if the patient was tightly bound or tucked in), if the injuries nerve. Of great importance in the development neuritis have chronic blood circulation disorders of the nerves, cooling.
The clinical picture neuritis characterized motor, sensory and vegetative-trophic disorders. Musculoskeletal disorders are peripheral, sluggish nature with the development of atrophy innervated muscle paresis or paralysis, reduced tendon reflexes, change elektrovozoremontnij. Most of the nerves are mixed, so their defeat marked loss of sensitivity in the area of innervation of the respective nerve.
Usually seen vasomotor and trophic disorders: cyanosis, thinning of the skin, brittle nails, hyperhidrosis. Clinical symptoms depend on which the nerve is damaged.
When the ulnar nerve neuritis develop atrophy intercostals muscles of the hand that turns claws; expressed pain, disorders of sensitivity on the inner surface of the forearm and hand; there is cyanosis, hyperhidrosis. With neuritis of the median nerve atrophy of muscles of the thumb, disturbed opposing thumb rest of the fingers; brush is "monkey paw". Pain localized in the fingers and on the inner surface of the forearm, often kaupallisesti character (see Causalgia), there is the symptom of a wet rag"when a patient to reduce the burning pain puts on hand cold wet cloth. There are significant vasomotor and trophic disorders.
When the radial nerve neuritis marked atrophy of the muscles extensor of the forearm and the main phalanges. Brush mouth; reduced reflex tendon triceps. Sensitivity is broken on the outer surface of the forearm and back surface of hand; severe autonomic disorders is not observed.
When neuritis femoral nerve violated straightening legs, marked atrophy of the quadriceps muscle of thigh. The knee-jerk reaction is reduced or absent. Pain is marked on the front of the inner surface of the femur and tibia. Neuritis of the peroneal nerve characterized by limiting the extension of the foot and toes, inability to be on the heel of the foot mouth, with bilateral nerve damage occurs "cock of the walk". With neuritis tibial nerve detected atrophy calf muscles and the muscles of the foot, the foot has a view- "claws"; difficulty plantar flexion of the foot and walk on their toes. Ankle reflex is reduced or absent. Frequent pain kaupallisessa nature, vasomotor and trophic disorders.
With the involvement of many nerves develops polyneuritis (see).
When neuritis cranial nerves fall functions provided data nerves, eye, face, eye, ear, sublingual, and others (see Cranial nerves). Neuritis of the group of nerves that begin from the nuclei of medulla oblongata (IX, X, XII pairs), gives a picture of the tabloid paralysis (see).
In most cases, the prognosis neuritis of peripheral nerves favorable, although recovery with a significant degree of destruction of nerve stretched for many months.
Treatment is determined by the reasons that caused neuritis. In infectious neuritis used antibiotics, intravenous infusion of 40% solution of hexamethylenetetramine (urotropine) 5 ml and 40% glucose solution in 10 ml for all forms of neuritis should appoint vitamins B1 and B12injections aloe and adenosine triphosphate. 1-2 weeks after the onset of the disease - physiotherapy: massage, medical gymnastics. In the absence of effect from a drug treatment used x-ray treatments. With traumatic neuritis sometimes you have to apply nervous seam (see).