The care of neurological patients

The care of neurological patients requires special attention and strict rules of General care, as in some diseases of the nervous system, patients may be in a very serious condition, often they observed long-term disorder of consciousness.
Very important is the care for acute human cerebral circulation. Patients with stroke create absolute rest. Put them on your back with your head elevated. Remove dentures, to the head put the ice, to the feet - warmers, making sure no burns. Prolonged coma (see), you need to do nutrient enema; at the exit from the coma patient spoon fed and only liquid food (juices, stewed fruits, cereals, tea). The necessary care of the oral cavity (see above) and monitoring the condition of the skin (prevention of bedsores), the activity of the intestines and bladder.
To avoid the development of a vicious contractures limbs give the correct position: hand must be allotted, spinarova, bent at the elbow joint of the fingers divorced, leg bent, foot - in position of dorsiflexion.
The loss of sensitivity is necessary to protect the patient from touching hot and cold; the involuntary urination and defecation is to put a rubber boat.
To prevent pulmonary complications turning the patient on side and elements of breathing exercises carried out with 3-5-th day of illness. In 7-10 days you can start passive physiotherapy, 10-15 days - a light massage. Additional support is particularly needed by patients with paralysis of limbs in periods of training and recovery. Patients are usually depressed, helpless, and their early inclusion in active movement mode provides better clinical outcome. Special difficulties encountered in the care of patients with aphasia (see).
Caring for patients with seizures, sister or nurse should be noted and reported to the doctor the features of seizure attack: what muscles began to cramp, their distribution, nature, power, duration; it is necessary to trace if there has been any loss of consciousness, biting of the tongue, foam at the mouth, involuntary urination and defecation, to determine the reaction of pupils on light. During a seizure, the patient must be protected from injury, head lay on a soft bed or hold hands; avoid biting tongue between your teeth side insert the filling, wrapped with gauze or a rolled edge towels, napkins. Legs slightly support, protecting from bruises, but to oppose the seizures should not be. Before the end of the seizure of the patient should not shift. At the end of fit of convulsions patient should ensure conditions for a peaceful night's sleep. In patients with acute infectious diseases of the nervous system, as well as closed cranial trauma often have mental disorders. During this period, they need bed rest, maximum alone, sparing diet. When a swallowing disorder are appointed nutritional enemas, food through entered through the nose probe. In violation of breathing is the aspiration of phlegm and mucus.
A special place in the treatment of neurological patients is psychotherapy (see). Method of suggestion applied with nervousness, reactive state, brain injury, provides good results with the active setting of the patient for a speedy recovery. The formation of such installation is possible with constant positive impact of a caregiver. Silence, cleanliness, comfort, good looking, sincere patient relationship - mandatory elements that contribute to the success of psychotherapeutic influence. In the neurological hospitals perform complex diagnostic procedures (spinal tap, angiography, ventrikulografia), which require special preparation of the patient.
For care of patients who have mental disorders, staff, in addition specially instructed as for the care of mentally ill (see).