Neuropathy (synonym: endogenous nervousness, neuropathic Constitution, congenital nervousness) is a concept that refers to congenital or acquired early anomaly of development of the nervous system, the result of damage cerebral functions. Clinically characterized by functional somatic disorders of the autonomic dystonia and neuropsychiatric disorders, among which covers an irritable syndrome of weakness (a combination of increased excitability with the rapid exhaustion).
Causes of neuropathy - family history of neuropsychiatric diseases, adverse effects in the period of intrauterine development of the fetus (a pathology of pregnancy, infection, intoxication and physical illness of the mother), asphyxia during birth, frequent infections, indigestion and head trauma in the first months of a child's life.
Signs of neuropathy are detected in the early stages of child development. In infancy and toddler years, the children are restless, noisy, slow to gain weight, bad fall asleep and Wake up with the action of a minor tactile and auditory stimuli, shuddered in his sleep. There are often unexpected vomiting, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation.
At pre-school age were impaired appetite, motor disinhibition or lethargy, restless, excessive otvlekaemost. Children look so pale, fragile, poorly use self-help skills, indifferent to food. Even ordinary disciplinary requirements are discontent, fear or violent protest with speech agitation and tears. Mental injury and family conflicts are the causes of transient or persistent psychogenic disorders that take the form of the most typical age of neurotic reactions: night terrors, fear of the dark, stuttering, bedwetting. In more rare cases may develop resistant neurotic vomiting. Children tend to hysterical reactions, which are expressed in the form of attacks of uncontrollable sobs, sobs, weeping, demonstrative, sweeping movements of the hands and feet. Less common are hysterical cough, mutism (delay of speech), sudorozhny swallowing, fainting.
In the school years on the foreground there is a mental component neuropathy. Characterized by emotional instability: lability of mood, a bad temper, irritability, sensitivity. Children tired quickly, their efficiency is reduced, they are easily carried away with new ideas and practice, but rarely lead up begun up to the end. In relationships with others may show a stubborn and rude, inappropriate shyness and anxiety. Neurotic reactions are various and in most cases is dynamic: the TEC (see), obsessive fears and movement, hypochondriac thought (see Hypochondriac syndrome), decline or even loss of appetite (anorexia), abstract concern. Mental fatigue accompanied by a sense of powerlessness, physical weakness, headache, dizziness. At this age often manifest functional disorders of the cardiovascular and digestive systems that belong to the collective concept of "neurosis bodies" (neurosis heart, stomach, Diskin Ziya biliary tract, spastic colitis, and so on).
The most critical from the point of view of further formation of the personality is puberty (see Age). In most cases, under the influence of hormonal and metabolic changes (see Metabolism and energy) in the body of the child, typical for this period, as well as educational measures are smoothed signs of neuropathy. Simultaneously exposed to reverse the development of neurotic symptoms and psychopathic behavior. In more rare cases pathogenic factors of hereditary and congenital origin in combination with mental injuries and defects education increase the severity of neurotic disorders or the formation of a psychopathic personality (neurotic and psychopathic personality development).
Treatment of neuropathy is a comprehensive medical and educational nature. During infancy is not advisable to resort to drugs. For several days you can assign sodium bromide 1% - 200.0 and caffeine-benzoate sodium 0.05 g on 1 teaspoon 3 times a day. At preschool age shall multivitamins, enemas with magnesium sulfate (or dessert spoon of 25% solution at B3 glass of water body temperature with the addition of 5-10 ml of mineral oil). Teenagers and older children under the direct supervision of a physician for treatment small tranquilizers: Librium (Elenium) 10-30 mg / day, seduxen 5-20 mg / day. Under conditions of emotional stress, fears and motor disinhibition - chlorpromazine 25-100 mg per day.
Prevention neuropathy is to ensure normal conditions pregnancy because neuropathy is usually associated with unfavourable development of the fetus (see Antenatal care of the fetus). After birth the prevention of neuropathy are measures of educational and hygienic character. Rational organization of study and recreation of the child plays an important role and rational nutrition.