Neurosis is a group of diseases, which are based on time, i.e., reversible disorders of the nervous system that occur under the influence of acute or prolonged stressful moments. A minor, but nevertheless enough of great importance in the occurrence of neurosises somatic diseases, prolonged fatigue, causing a weakening of the nervous system and contributing to its high sensitivity to psychogenic factors. Neurosis can occur in all people, but often they develop in persons with weakened nervous system. To neurosis are neurasthenia, hysteria, neurosis, and obsessions. Psychasthenia belongs to the group of psychopathy (see).
In the development of neurasthenia, along with psychogenic causes of great importance physical exhaustion. Therefore, neurasthenia often called a neurosis exhaustion. Neurasthenia characterized by irritability, anxiety and loss of self-control, combined with fatigue, tearfulness, a sense of powerlessness. Especially standing at the beginning of the illness complaints about the difficulty or impossibility of a lot of mental work in connection with confusion, forgetfulness, and otvlekaemost. Normal in this period impatience and restlessness, and associated inability to do one some kind of activity. In process of deterioration increases physical weakness manifested the desire of patients to lie. On this background is easily depressed mood, often accompanied by thoughts about the presence of some physical diseases - cancer, tuberculosis, diseases of the cardiovascular system , and so on, the Emergence of these concerns contribute normal for neurasthenia autonomic and somatic disorders (see Asthenic syndrome), we accept patients with the symptoms of somatic diseases. As in asthenic syndrome, a disorder that define neurosis, expressed less in the morning, i.e. after the rest, and much worse in the evening and after physical and mental stress.
Symptoms of hysteria are extremely varied and outwardly may resemble a variety of diseases. Main violations are defined neurological and psychiatric symptoms. Neurologic disorders are different by intensity and distribution of paralysis, paresis (see), disorders of pain sensitivity and coordination of movements, hyperkinesia (see), tremor, stuttering, varied speech disorders, ranging from its bezzvuchno up to complete silence.
The peculiarity of neurological disorders in hysteria that they are not accompanied with other disorders, common for neurological disorders of organic origin. So, when hysterical paralysis and paresis no changes reflexes, trophic disorders, disorders of the pelvic organs, and so on Disorders of sensitivity in hysteria does not match the anatomic zones innervation. Normal sensitivity disorders in the form of "gloves, socks, stocking". In hysteria often observed astasia-Abaza - a condition in which the patient is unable to stand or walk, despite the preservation of muscle strength and movements in the lower extremities. Often meeting before the hysterical attacks now are observed very rarely. They always occur after the external reasons, in the presence of other persons Falling is not accompanied by the damage. No convulsive phase of epilepsy. Motor reactions are characterized by diversity, often of great expressiveness, and disorder. Saved reaction to pain irritation. There are no bites of language, of the oral mucosa, urination and defecation. Seizures in hysteria last for 10-15 minutes to several hours.
Of mental disorders in hysteria often twilight change of consciousness arising always after psychological trauma. In it, besides altered consciousness, accompanied by "theatrical" behavior can occur hysterical fits, astasia-Abaza and a number of other hysterical neurological disorders. Characteristic partial amnesia period of a disordered mind. To hysterical psychosis may also include pseudodementia and puerile status (see Psychogenic), met frequently with severe, damaging the psyche of the situation and, in particular, with different kind of expertise.
Neurosis obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the appearance after psychogenic different contents I. form obsessions (see the Obsessions). Usually the obsessions with neuroses accompanied by anxiety, fear, low mood, and a variety of autonomic disorders - tachycardia, sweating, chilliness, the variability of blood pressure, vasomotor reactions.
Neurosis peculiar full reversibility of the pain. However, a number of severe mental illness - progressive paralysis, schizophrenia, arteriosclerosis of the brain and so on - can begin with disabilities, are not distinguishable from the beginning those who meet with nervousness. Therefore, patients with neurosis always should be referred to a psychiatrist.
In the treatment of neurosis, always carried out by the doctor, you must use psychotherapy (see), various sedatives - bromine products, meprobamate, Elenium, seduxen, etc. and vitamin therapy. Of great importance in the treatment of neurosis has therapeutic exercise - morning hygienic gymnastics (see), Hiking and skiing, swimming, boating. The choice of the type of physical therapy and methods of its implementation of the individual. Lingering neuroses treated in a hospital.