Neuroses and neurozopodobne state

In the process of preparation to competitions athletes often experience a state of high anxiety motivational and emotional systems. Such an unbalanced condition occurs mostly in individuals with increased excitability, emotional instability, suspiciousness and is a neurosis.
Neurosis - psychogenic (conflict) behavioral disorder that occurs as a result of violations of particularly important in life-human relationships is manifested in specific clinical phenomena in the absence of psychotic phenomena. Among the reasons of occurrence of neurosises various social conflicts, life's failures, contradictions between the needs and the true state of Affairs between the claim (queries) and possibility of its implementation.
For the emergence of neuroses are important as constitutional features of a person, traumatic brain injury, moved somatic and infectious diseases. Contributing factors include mental and physical fatigue, burdened with negative emotions and experiences, gross violations of the regime, Smoking, use of alcohol.
Sports physician must be clear about the psycho-emotional state of athletes in preparation for the competition, which group (scenicheskoj or asthenic) refers to one or the other athlete.
Statistical information of neuroses in athletes no, although the problem of neuroses in Oporto increasingly attracts attention of doctors. Neurosis is a disease of personality, disease motivational and emotional system, the hallmark of which are vegetative disorders. Leading manifestations of neurosis are reduced physical and mental health, violation of adaptive behavior.
In sports practice most often there are the following forms of neurosis: neurasthenia, neurosis, obsessions, cardiac neurosis.
Neurasthenia. There are 2 forms of neurasthenia - giperstenichesky and hyposthenic. Based giperstenichesky forms lies in the weakening of the internal active braking; hyposthenic reflects the weakening and brake, and irritable processes. The clinical picture giperstenichesky forms are characteristic increased total excitability, irritability, which manifests itself in an acute response even at insignificant remarks trainers, judges, comrades, bright unmotivated outbursts of anger, abuse, crying. These athletes have difficulty falling asleep, sleep is often accompanied by unpleasant dreams. The mood among them unstable, reduced overall health. In the neurological status - high tendon reflexes, expressed red or white dermographism, asymmetry of arterial blood pressure, expressed autoreflex, tremor century and fingers in the Romberg, various vegetative manifestations on the part of internal organs (spastic constipation, diskinesia biliary tract and others). Athletes with this form of neurasthenia complain of fatigue, which is associated with the exhaustion of the nervous processes, decreases active attention, when exercising Pets a lot of marriage, it is difficult learning new elements of the exercises.
Hyposthenic form is characterized by symptoms of General lethargy, apathy, depression, daytime sleepiness, insomnia at night. The athletes of this group observed similar complaints on General fatigue, unwillingness to train or anything to do, they inattentive, distracted, they have no feeling of freshness after sleep.
Chief in the clinical picture of neurosis, obsessions are different manifestations of obsession. An important feature of the obsessive thoughts is that fear when they have not always, and under certain conditions in a particular situation or in the induction of certain beliefs and not outside them. There are obsessive thoughts of defeat in the competition, false start, fear of the disease, such as cancer (cancerophobia). Often, athletes turn to the doctor about any concerns about their heart (cardiophobia), fear to stay in an enclosed space (claustrophobia). In the basis of obsessions is the emergence of a focus of pathological excitation, which causes the cortex of the negative phenomena induction and beyond braking. Phobias, in essence, are pathological passive defensive reactions.
Cardiac neurosis is a disease, which is one of the most frequent forms of neuroses internal organs. The main role of psychic experiences, physical overstrain. Often symptoms of heart neurosis observed in the abuse of alcohol, tobacco, strong coffee. Clinically cardioneurosis accompanied complaining of discomfort and pain in the heart, although an objective examination of the heart pathological changes is not defined.
Treatment for regular and depends on the form of neurosis. Athletes with expressed clinical manifestations one or the other form of neurosis should be exempt from competition and have reduced the stress in training, as well as additional days of rest. They need better conditions for accommodation in training camp and the special attention of a doctor.
In conclusion of the section of neuroses, specify that in the present state of overtraining should be regarded as a neurosis (possible all forms)occurring due to surge of the Central nervous system. Usually this neurosis is the result not so much very intense as monotonous incorrectly built training and so on, of Course, physical fatigue is set in the emergence of overtraining, but not the main. The state of overtraining can occur without reducing the level of functional state of the vegetative systems. If this reduction takes place and appear, for example, changes of the myocardium or renal function, it should not be seen as a manifestation of overtraining as neurosis, and as a combination of an overvoltage of the Central nervous system with overvoltage the heart, kidneys, etc., Therefore the basis of treatment overtraining should lie treatment of neurosis.