Nickel (Niccolum, Ni) is a chemical element of group VIII of the periodic system of elements of D. I. Mendeleyev. Serial number 28, atomic weight 58,71. Nickel - silver-white metal, temperature melting 1455 degrees, the density of 8.9, soluble in dilute nitric acid. It is applied at reception of high-quality steel, alloys, Nickel-based catalysts, electroplating for Nickel plating of products. Compounds of Nickel used in glass, ceramic industry, are used as a poison for control of pests of agriculture.
Very toxic Nickel carbonyl - Ni(CO)4. Nickel and its compounds enter the body through the lungs through the air we breathe in the form of dust, fog, vapor.
In industry generally occur chronic poisoning. However, when exposed to high concentrations of Nickel compounds may be acute poisoning. Symptoms of acute poisoning are weakness, headache, vomiting, shortness of breath. For mild poisoning all the symptoms disappear in the fresh air. In severe cases may develop pulmonary edema. Chronic poisoning there are frequent pneumonia, nasal bleeding, impaired sense of smell, the defeat mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract type laryngitis, pharyngitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, possibly a perforation of the nasal septum. Contact with the compounds of Nickel may cause skin - "Nickel eczema", or "Nickel itch". These diseases occur in workers neklinovskogo and persons engaged in the manufacture of electrolytic method.
Treatment. First aid at acute poisoning Nickel: remove patient from areas contaminated with compounds of Nickel, heat, absolute peace in 3-5 days after poisoning, cyanosis , and wheezing is the inhalation of pure oxygen, according to testimony, as an antispasmodic - aminophylline (inside 0.2 g 2-3 times a day or intramuscular 2-3 ml of 12% solution); every 6 hours. during the first two days and twice a day in the next 8 days, intramuscularly mixing antidote of dimercaptol for 3 to 5 mg per 1 kg of patient's weight; intravenous infusion 5-10 ml 10% solution of chloride calcium and 10-20 ml of 40% glucose solution; phlebotomy; on the testimony of - heart.
Prevention. To identify persons with high sensitivity and not allow them to work with Nickel. Warning skin contact working with compounds of Nickel. Mechanization of loading and seizure of products in Nickel plating. The application of special coverings for baths at electrolytic production of Nickel. Use special gloves, aprons, lubricate the skin protective ointments. Sealing equipment with the device corresponding local mechanical exhaust ventilation. Maximum permissible concentration of Nickel compounds in the air of industrial premises 0.5 mg/m3.
All working with compounds of Nickel are periodically to medical examinations every six months by the Commission consisting of therapist, neurologist, a dermatologist, a radiologist.