Nitro compounds are organic compounds containing in the molecule the nitrogroup N02, associated with an atom of carbon. Known aliphatic nitrocompounds (nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, microform and others) and aromatic nitro compounds (nitrobenzene, dinitrobenzene, nitrotoluene, trinitrotoluene, nitroxyl, nitronaphthalene and others). Nitrocompounds - liquid or crystalline substance. They are insoluble or poorly soluble in water, explosive. Aliphatic nitro compounds are used as solvents, resins and esters, cellulose, textile industry, in organic synthesis; aromatic nitro compounds in the manufacture of aniline, soap (nitrobenzene), dyes, as explosives (TNT).
Nitro compounds penetrate the body through the respiratory, digestive and intact skin (especially aromatic), are in the urine. Symptoms of acute toxicity aliphatic nitrocompounds is an irritation of the mucous membranes of eyes and respiratory tract, causing cyanosis. In severe poisoning-pulmonary edema, convulsions, liver failure.
For acute poisoning aromatic nitrocompounds is characterized by the appearance in the blood metgemoglobin degenerative forms of erythrocytes, yellow-brown staining of the skin on the hands and face (Xanthi called-protein reaction), complaints of weakness, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting. In severe cases, loss of consciousness, sharp blueness of the skin, respiratory failure and cardiac activity, convulsions; later, the defeat liver and kidneys. Found in the urine of hematoporphyrin, hemoglobin, bile pigments, protein. Death occurs in a coma in violation of breathing and heart function.
The symptoms of chronic poisoning of aromatic and aliphatic nitrocompounds, weakness, parestesia, insomnia, agitation; gradually increasing anemia, jaundice, cyanosis; liver initially increased, then decreases (atrophy); increased body temperature.
Treatment. First aid at acute poisoning nitrocompounds: remove victim to fresh air. Contaminated skin wash warm (not hot!) water, give to inhale oxygen and Carbogen. To restore metgemoglobina in hemoglobin intravenous enter the 1% solution metilenovogo blue in 25% glucose solution (0.1 ml per 1 kg of weight). In severe cases, bleeding, according to testimony - heart drugs, in violation of breathing - lobeline (subcutaneously to 1 ml 1% solution); if breathing has stopped - artificial respiration.
Prevention of poisoning - mechanization of technological processes, sealing equipment, ventilation of industrial premises; for protection from fumes nitrocompounds - filtering gas mask, dust - air respirators with replaceable filters. It is mandatory to wear clothes made of fabrics, impervious to nitrocompounds, gloves, goggles, boots. After work and on accidental pollution of a body - a shower and a change of clothes. Held preliminary and periodic (1 per year) medical tests.