Noma

noma
Noma cheeks.

Noma (synonym water canceris a disease characterized by the development of wet gangrene facial tissues, sometimes mucous membrane of the vagina, rectum, rarely skin of the neck, fingers and toes. The name "water cancer" appeared due to the fact that the destruction of tissues with room has some similarities with the death of their cancer, but no signs of malignant growth in nome not. Common nome mainly in the countries with a hot climate, in the middle and Northern latitudes is rare. Sick primarily children who suffer severe infectious disease or weakened by starvation.
The disease begins with the appearance of the skin or mucous membrane bluish-red bubble, then turning into a patch of dark blue color; round a stain the skin has a waxy color; the surrounding tissue edema, solid to the touch, fast mortify, emit a putrid smell. Already on 3-5 day gangrenous process spreads on the whole and in depth, resulting in the collapse and fall away considerable areas of facial tissues (Fig.), alveolar process of the jaws. The affected areas are not causing pain, bleeding is almost absent. The patient is in severe condition, indifferent to the environment. Body temperature remains within 39-40 degrees. The forecast. Mortality before the advent of antibiotics reached 80 - 90% of patients die from the total of sepsis. Under favorable for and rational treatment of noma on the border of healthy tissue appears delimiting line with signs of inflammation, appear granulation tissue, the wound is cleaned and roboeda.
Treatment. The patient to be hospitalized, prescribe antibiotics, mainly penicillin 50 000 - 100 000 IU every 4 - 6 to 12 hours depending on the age of the patient and the severity of the process, and restorative treatment. Defects tissues and scars eliminate plastic surgery.
Prevention is the careful monitoring of the mouth of children suffering from measles, diarrhea different etiology and other debilitating diseases.