Normal immune response

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At the same time T-helpers transmit information about the antigen reposing B-cells, if they have not been independently stimulated by antigen. B cells begin to differentiate into plasma cells and reproduce up until allocated IL-2. Plasma cells produce immunoglobulins M for several days, and then switch to the synthesis of antibodies class G. Antiviral immunity reaches its maximum in a week after infection. The destruction of infected cells at this stage can quickly eliminate the disease, after which the production of T-killer cells and antibodies becomes physiologically impractical.
The next stage of the immune response is the activation of T-lymphocytes suppressor. At the beginning of a virus attack their number is growing slower than the T-killers. But the immune system, like all other body functions, you need the rest, which cannot be achieved by the elimination of antigens in the environment or lack of internal incentives for protective reaction. It is necessary self-restraint or inverse negative relationship inherent in any self-regulating system. Mobility immunological reactions, change of response to different pathogens - all of these provide suppressor lymphocytes. It is when the immune response peaks are included brakes, which reduces the activity of division of T-killer cells and plasma cells.
Among T-suppressors, there are three different categories of cells. T1-suppressor occur relatively early, they are stimulated by the products of activity of macrophages-Monokini. T2-suppressor appear in 7 days after antigenic stimulation, they accumulate mainly in the spleen and have a specific action, i.e. primarily directed against a specific antigen. T3-suppressor late stages are less specific. Each of these groups of cells is under the control of the antigens tissue compatibility II class. T-suppressors have the ability to synthesize soluble suppressor lymphokines (Monokini and lymphokines received the name from the name of the cell, producing and English. words kin - related). Suppressor effect has also some macrophages, B cells, and the EC that special conditions may be immunoregulatory.
Due to the variety of cells involved in the immune response, and are binding molecules lymphocyte receptors. Receptors B-cells can recognize the free antigen, or associated with T-helper. Molecules and antibodies receptor B-cells are identical, with the only difference that the latter has "anchor" particle, which links the receptor surface of B-cells. Receptors of T cells vastly more complex. In addition immunoglobulin plot, they must have a segment that recognizes antigens tissue compatibility. T-helpers recognize their own antigens, class II, T-killers - class I antigens. Both of these class antigens created in order to direct T-lymphocytes where their action will be most effective.
Recently it was discovered that for T-cell receptor insufficient two genes, providing a variety of immunoglobulins. There is a third gene, head of the formation curvariables ' -chain amino acids, which was called "quickly reconstructing gene". This added chain is particularly pronounced in the T-killers, which is why they have such a high specificity of action.