Nose

the structure of the nose
Fig. 1. Right outer wall of the nasal cavity: 1 - the top of the bow; 2 - upper nasal Concha; 3 - the main bosom; 4 - the average of the bow; 5 - the lower nasal passage; 6 - the lower nasal Concha; 7 - middle nasal Concha; 8 - the frontal sinus.

Fig. 2. Nasal cavity (front-cut): 1 - the average shell; 2 - bottom shell; 3 - top sink.

Anatomy. The nose is the initial part of the upper respiratory tract, one of the resonator cavity voice and the location of the receptor apparatus of the olfactory analyzer. External nose is formed bone-cartilaginous skeleton, covered with muscles and skin. With the environment external nose reported two holes, called nostrils. The nasal cavity is located between the cavity of the skull, orbits and oral cavity, communicated with the upper part of the throat - nose-throat by Joan. The nasal cavity is divided into two halves cartilage and bone partition. The three so-called nasal sinks nasal cavity is divided into upper, middle and lower nasal passages. Under the front end of the lower nasal shell opens a hole nasolacrimal channel, in the middle of the bow offer maxillary (maxillary and frontal sinuses, and anterior ethmoid cells, the top of the bow communicated with the main bosom and posterior ethmoid cells (Fig. 1 and 2). The mucous membrane of the nasal cavity covered ciliated epithelium, in the upper nasal passage there is an end unit of the olfactory nerve. The main arterial trunk, supplying blood to the nasal cavity, is a. sphenopalatina; venous blood is collected in the front and top of the ophthalmic Vienna, numerous venous plexus with smooth muscles form a bone skeleton turbinates cavernous tissue able reflex change in volume. The lymphatic system of the mucous membrane of the nose is very rich and communicated with subdural and subarachnoidal spaces of the brain.
Physiology. Nasal cavity searches respiratory, olfactory (see the sense of Smell), protective and resonator functions. The inhaled air passes through the nasal passages moist and warm. Dust particles and bacteria mechanical linger on the mucous membrane of the nose and later removed by blow your nose or expectoration. Bacteria are also bactericidal effect nasal mucus.
The study of the nose is in the artificial light through the frontal lobe of the reflector and nasal dilator (front rinoskopia). Rear ends of the nasal cavities and joani examined using a special mirror (back rinoskopia).
Pathology. Damage of the nose accompanied by bleeding (see nosebleeds) and deformation of parts of the skeleton of the external nose.
Treatment is to stop the bleeding and early reposition and fixation of fragments by means of a tight tamponade of the nasal cavity and laying tight gauze rollers on each side of the bridge of the nose, held by strips of sticky tape.
The deformation of the outer parts of a nose are often the consequence of injury or syphilis. Nasal septum deviation, violation of nasal breathing with one or two of the parties are treated promptly by submucosal resection of the nasal septum cartilage, or mobilization of - education-Windows and delete using the bit of bone thorns at the base of the septum of the nose.

  • Diseases of the nose