Nosebleeds

Nasal bleeding - bleeding from the outer holes of the nose or through the nasopharynx.
Cause nosebleeds can be local and General nature. The latter include changes in blood vessels and in blood system (hemophilia, atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart disease, kidney, liver, and so on). Infectious diseases due to intoxication and overheating of the body may be accompanied by a rich nosebleeds (measles, scarlet fever, flu and other).
To local causes nosebleeds are a nose injury, foreign body falling into the nasal cavity, dry mucous membranes, especially anterior sections of nasal septum, bleeding tumors, ulcers, etc.
The most frequent place of nasal bleeding is the front part of the nasal septum, about 1 cm away from the entrance to the nose - the so-called kisseljova place (Fig. 1). Less bleeding nasal turbinates and other parts of mucous membrane. Nasal bleeding usually begins suddenly, for no apparent reason. Sometimes it goes stops, but in some cases lasts a long time, obeskrovlivaya patient and causing a drop in heart rate, weakness and even fainting.

nosebleeds
Fig. 1. The vessels of the nasal septum (1), of which the most often nosebleeds.
Fig. 2. Front tamponade of the nasal cavity.

Treatment. The easiest way to stop nosebleeds in normal cases is tamponade of the nose in front of a piece of sterile cotton or gauze, better soaked in hydrogen peroxide. When re-nasal bleeding visiting the nasal cavity by means of a skull reflector and nasal dilator, find a bleeding places, smeared them with a 3% solution of cocaine with adrenaline and cauterised chromic acid or galvanometers.
If necessary, use the front tamponade of the nasal cavity, using as instruments cranked tweezers or nasal forceps. Extending the entrance to the nose nose mirror, long gauze pad consistently perform rear sections of nasal cavity, bottom and middle nasal passages (Fig. 2).
In those cases, when the front tamponade not stop nosebleeds, resort to the back tamponade.
For rear tamponade through the lower nasal passage in the throat spend a thin rubber catheter; when the end of the catheter will appear behind the soft palate, his capture by forceps and out through the mouth outside. Prepare a pad of gauze, the appropriate size of the nasopharynx and bandaged his strong double silk thread crosswise like bale and leave him free three long end of the thread. To the mouth end of the catheter tie the two threads are tied up in the form of bales swab, then the catheter bring back through the nose. Sipping at these threads and helping your finger through the patient's mouth impose tampon in the nasopharynx. Then hold in the threads of the tampon in the nasopharynx, produce the front tamponade of the nasal cavity (Fig. 2). The ends of the threads from the swab is entered in the nasopharynx, tied at external nasal openings over the roll of cotton (Fig. 3).as to stop the blood from the nose

Fig. 3. Back tamponade of the nasal cavity: 1 - 3 - consecutive stages.

In severe cases, bleeding nose apply tools that increase blood clotting: 10% solution of chloride calcium inside or intravenously, vitamin K, blood transfusion in small doses (50-100 ml). Treatment of the underlying disease.