Novorossiysk University

The name of Petr Antonovich Spiro, perhaps it is known to the reader by the portraits of Ilya Repin, Vasily Polenov. His contemporaries knew Spiro as a famous baritone, speaking on the Opera stage, and a man very radical views. Spiro was a great connoisseur of the arts, he had this great stage and vocal talent and for many years was bound by solid ties of friendship with outstanding figures of Russian culture - artists I. E. Repin, V. M. Vasnetsov, M. M. Antokolsky, V. I. Surikov, C. O. Polenov, playwright A. N. Ostrovsky, a patron, I. Mamontov and others.
Great qualities and interest in Russian culture does not interfere Petr Antonovich to consider his calling physiology. In 1867, after graduating from Moscow University " Spiro arrives at the Military medical Academy, where he worked under the guidance of the Sechenov. I must say that Spiro was the first Who discovered the principle of reciprocal innervation, but it happened in the period opals Sechenov as he left the Academy, and this work Spiro was published in the Bulletin of the University of Novorossiysk".
We are also interested in the experiments P. A. Spiro, and put them on the frog method Turk, as most of the experiments Sechenov. This method was that the Central nervous system was cut at the level of the medulla oblongata and the animal was hung on a tripod; now, if immerse one's feet to the acid (diluted, of course), then after quite some time the frog will hold out with his paw, and this time is called the latent (latent) period reflex Turk. Period is the shorter, stronger than the solution.
Spiro tried different degrees of immersion frog legs in acid solution and found that the reflex is coming sooner than most surface of the skin acts substance. Then Spiro tried to act acid in both hind legs frog waiting for now is very quick reaction, To his surprise (and I hope to surprise the reader), reflex has slowed considerably.
From the point of view of regulation of the heart's two-faced by the vagus nerve, it could be interpreted in a simple meaning: institution of a small number of receptors causes in the centre of the response, which increases with the increase of the number of excited receptors, but some time when the number involved in the initiation of the receptor of the fibers exceeds a certain optimum, the center instead of increased arousal reacts as if weak excitation, that is actually in the heart begins to develop a braking. The same ability to put agitation in braking, obviously, has vasomotor center, and intracardiac ganglia system vagus nerve.
In an earlier study Spiro studied the effect of irritation of sensitive nerve on the breath, like hunt (remember?) he studied the influence of irritation of the sciatic nerve on blood pressure by cutting the nerve below irritation, that is, without irritating motor nerve endings. So did Spiro, rather, hunt did as Spiro, for experiments hunt delivered almost twenty years later.
Spiro was working on a more "modern" level than hunt: it varied intensity irritation of the sciatic nerve rabbit. I must say that before this Spiro established the whereabouts of the respiratory centre by the method of successive pererezat the spinal cord and medulla oblongata - proven method Ovsyannikova, and Ludwig and tiree, which thus established, where the vasomotor centre oblong
of the brain.
The weak irritation of a nerve in the experiments Spiro was intensified I increased the breath of the rabbit. Irritation medium intensity led to unstable moving breathing and severe irritation was caused by ischemia and even stopped breathing. Evaluating this unexpected result, Spiro wrote that it would be interesting to find such relationships reflex regulation of movements that would explain many of the mysteries of step sequences.
Irritating in all the possible combinations of all four frog legs, Spiro was convinced that, first, reflex OTDELENIE one foot is always accompanied by a reflex muscle relaxation another's feet. This is the reciprocal inhibition and excitement - the principle newly opened regardless Spiro another student of the I. M. Sechenov. That Is, The Vedeno. But the discovery of this important law by which it is possible movement of the limbs, walking etc., ascribed to the Englishman Sherrington described and developed all these twenty years later. Secondly, Spiro saw that if the number of centripetal fibers irritated area or areas to increase, the initiation of somatic effectors (muscles of the legs) enters braking, and this quantitative principle of activity of the nervous system, as we call it, refers to the autonomic nervous system, in this case to respiratory center.
Another paradox of science: work Spiro soon be forgotten, and for a long time. Physiology should be deeply grateful to C. M. Gautino for what it through many years (in 1952) found and appreciated article by Peter A. Spiro and told about them to the scientist the world. Spiro has survived only to forty-nine years and has published nine publications. However Spiro has made very much in Russian science. Maybe this will help someone learn to appreciate the work of a researcher by the number written, and is essentially made.
But Sechenov again in St. Petersburg, this time not in the Military medical Academy and the University. Here it appears a new brilliant student, for which we will have to commit another distant journey in time and space.