Nuclear weapons

Nuclear weapons are one of the types of weapons of mass destruction, which is due to the energy released by a nuclear explosion. Among modern means of armed struggle nuclear weapons is the most powerful tool to defeat the troops and the population, and the destruction of important administrative, industrial and other objects.
Nuclear weapons can be used in nuclear munitions, which are based on the use of different methods of release of nuclear energy. The power of nuclear ammunition is determined by the amount of energy released during the explosion, and is expressed trotyl equivalent, i.e. the number of TNT in tons, the explosion of which the energy equivalent to the explosion of this nuclear weapon. Nuclear weapons can be delivered to the target by missiles, aircraft carriers and other means. Method of delivery is determined by the nature of the objective, place and conditions in force troops.
The damaging effect of nuclear weapons depends on the capacity and the type of a nuclear explosion. There are air, ground (surface) and underground (underwater) nuclear explosions. Nuclear explosion is accompanied by a sharp sounds, resembling lightning discharge. When terrestrial and low air explosions in the initial phase forms a ball of fire, which rises up. Then the balloon gradually increases in volume, cooled, turning into a mushroom cloud containing radioactive substances. The cloud can capture ascending flow from the earth hundreds and thousands of tonnes of soil. At high air explosions mushroom cloud is formed.
When air and surface nuclear explosions, a number of damaging factors: air shock wave, light radiation, ionizing radiation and radioactive contamination of the area. The relation between the individual strike factors depends on the type and power of a nuclear explosion. For example, when high air explosions, radioactive contamination of the area practically does not occur.
Air shock wave is a major damaging factor of nuclear weapons.
Air shock wave is the result of rapid expansion of explosion products under the action of a huge amount of heat and subsequent compression of the surrounding layers of air. Compression of spreads in all directions from the blast at supersonic speed. The front boundary wave is called the front. The striking effect of the shock wave is mainly characterized by excessive pressure in front of a shock wave (the difference between the pressure in the front of a shock wave and atmospheric pressure), and time. With increasing power of the explosion values of the parameters of the shock wave increases, increases the radius of the affected area. On propagation of shock waves affect the terrain and meteorological conditions (direction and force of the wind, the temperature in different layers of air). The Shockwave may disrupt various objects and affect people at a considerable distance from the epicenter of the explosion.
People with the direct impact of the shock waves arise various injuries, the indirect impacts can be caused by the wreckage of various constructions, stones, fragments of window glass.
To protect people from the damaging effect of the shock wave is provided with the early creation of protective structures, natural shelters, the dispersal of forces and objects. Basic measures of protection in open areas is the most rational location of the body in relation to the blast - lying on the ground face down, head or legs in the explosion.

  • Radiation of nuclear explosion
  • Light radiation and ionizing radiation of nuclear explosion