Monkey

Monkey - animals, relating to the order of primates, which is owned and people. The Primate is divided into sub-units: prosimians (Lemuroidea), dolgopiatov (Tarsioidea) and APE (Pithecoidea). The last presents flat-nosed and narrow-nosed monkeys. Flat-nosed monkey (Fig. 1-3) are found in Central and South America. They are divided into two families: gruntowych, or clawed, O. (Нараlidae), and zenusovich, or continuously, O. (Cebidae). Chain Acting (4-12) live in Asia and Africa. They are divided into family martiskainen (Cercopithecidae) and humanoid (Simiidae, s. Pongidae). Family martiskainen O. includes subfamily martyshkova (Cercopithecinae), which include various kinds of Makarov, in fact monkeys, baboons, and subfamily Tonkolili O. (Semnopithecinae). To apes are Gibbons (Hylobates and Symphalangus), orangutans (Simiinae), gorilla (Gorilla), chimpanzees (Pan).
Anatomical and physiological proximity to person Acting makes increasing use of Acting in medical and biological experiments in the study of different pathological processes and various human diseases infectious and non-infectious nature.
Experimentation on humanoid monkeys difficult due to their large size and complexity of their content in captivity. Representatives of the SEM. Kapucinov - Capuchins (Cebus), and more recently saimiri-proteins (Saimiri sciurea) are used in various experiments on the study of physiology of higher nervous activity, for the reproduction of atherosclerosis.
The most widely used in various experiments of various kinds of Makarov, primarily rhesus (Macacus rhesus, a synonym of Massa mulatta), widespread in India, found in China, Vietnam, Burma, Thailand. Rhesus - relatively small Acting with brown fur, but the large males can weigh 10-12 kg On these O. study various infectious diseases, dysentery, salmonellosis, measles, polio, etc. they reproduce neurosis, diseases of cardiovascular system (hypertension, coronary insufficiency) and many other human disease. Less in the experimental practice there are other types of makakov: brown macaque (M. speciosus), svingvoll (M nemestrinus), Javanese (M cynomolgus, synonym M computer), and other
In the experimental practice is widely used as baboon-hamadryl (Papio hamadryas), baboon-Anubis (R. doguera) and green monkeys (Cercopithecus sabaeus). Baboon-hamadryl live in East Africa (Ethiopia, Sudan). This is the great apes with ash-grey hair; baboons-anubias coat has a greenish hue. Males can weigh 20-25 kg Baboon - animals with high gregarious organization. They are convenient for studying the physiology of the higher nervous activity, neurosis, diseases of cardiovascular system (hypertension, coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis). Young animals successfully replicate some infectious diseases (measles, polio, Icaro-hemorrhagic leptospirosis and other). Green monkeys living in Ethiopia, Nigeria, Guinea, has been very useful for playback of malignant neoplasms. As green monkey spontaneously ill with leukemia, they are easy to study the effect of leukemia viruses of various animals. On monkeys, baboons and green monkeys can't reproduce viral rous sarcoma. Tissue culture kidney monkeys are used in the manufacture of polio vaccine (see Polio).
Among diseases emerging spontaneously from Acting in nurseries and zoos, there are many diseases that are peculiar to man. The number of diseases is found only in humans and Acting (for example, measles, infectious parotitis, dysentery and other). Disease monkeys in natural conditions have been little studied.
Studies in monkeys become in recent years a very large scale, and therefore the number of species O. used by experimenters, growing every year. From 1927 in Sukhumi there is research center (now the Institute of experimental pathology and therapy of AMS of the USSR), which is widely conducted experimental researches of O. In recent years primatologica centers were established in several countries. Cm. also Laboratory animals.

Fig. 1. Igranka ordinary. Fig. 2. Brown Capuchin. Fig. 3. Spider monkey. Fig. 4. Baboon-hamadryl. Fig. 5. Gelada. Fig. 6. Guinean monkey. Fig. 7. Rhesus. Fig. 8. Smoky conatel. Fig. 9. The Nosach ordinary. Fig. 10. Orangutan. Fig. 11. Chimpanzees ordinary. Fig. 12. Gorilla coast.