Metabolism and energy as the main function of the organism

The phenomenon of metabolism are entering the body from external environment of various substances in the absorption and transformation, and in the selection formed degradation products. In all these processes of change of substances in the body, there are many different chemical, mechanical, thermal and electrical phenomena that occurs continuously transforming energy: potential energy complex organic compounds when they are splitting is released and converted into heat, mechanical, electrical. Mainly in the body is released heat and mechanical energy. Quantitatively insignificant release of electric energy, though very important physiological value of functions of the nervous system. Potential chemical energy in some organisms turned into light energy.
The energy released in the body, is used not only to maintain body temperature, and doing the outer work, but also to maintain the structure and functioning of the cells and the processes related to their growth and development.
The animal organism constantly consumes a variety of substances, fissile it, and a significant amount of energy. So he needs food that contain complex organic compounds that are the source of a plastic material and energy.
The metabolism of energy conversion are inseparable from each other. There is no change of substance without transformation of energy and there is no exchange of energy metabolism. Quantitatively prevailing result of the energy processes in the body, is in heat. The definition released in the body of thermal energy and the conversion to the unit of heat and mechanical energy of the external work can serve as a way of quantifying energy expenditure of the body and the intensity of exchange processes. Modern physiology widely uses data of energy, theoretical foundations of thermodynamics and its research methods to study biological processes. Such research has been possible due to the fact that the processes of metabolism and energy of a living organism proceed according greatest generalization of natural history - the law of conservation of matter and energy.
In a living organism matter and energy cannot be created or disappear, only to change them, the uptake and release.
The first experimental evidence has been obtained A. L. Lavoisier and P.F. by Laplace in 1781, They determined the amount of heat given by the body of the Guinea pig in ice calorimeter. At the same time investigated the allocation of animals carbon dioxide, which gave the possibility to set the number of oxidized in the body of carbon. Then Lavoisier and Laplace determined the value of the thermal energy released by the combustion of the calorimeter of coal equivalent amount of oxidized in the body of the animal carbon. It turned out that the results of both genera calorimetric definitions coincide. Thus it was proved that the release of energy in the body is a result of oxidation processes.
Conclusions Lavoisier and Laplace repeatedly tested, and used all better equipment research and was similar in their theoretical value of the results. Especially clear data were obtained M Rubiera in experiments on dogs and U. Atmoterm in studies done on humans. Despite the extreme difficulty of the experiment, the researchers have surprisingly close matching values of thermal energy emitted as at oxidation in the body of certain nutrients, and by burning them outside the body.