Peculiarities of metabolism in children

The main stages of metabolism and energy in children from birth until the formation of an adult organism are a number of its features. This selection changes the quantitative characteristics, is a quality reconstruction of metabolic processes. So, in children, unlike adults, a significant part of the energy consumed by the growth and plastic processes, which are greatest among newborns and children of early age.
The main exchange in children varies depending on the age of the child and the type of food. In the first days of life he is 512 kcal/m2, then gradually increases and to 11/2 years has a value of 1200 kcal/m2. To the period of puberty energy consumption of the main exchange is reduced to 960 kcal/m2. While boys energy costs on the main exchange in conversion per 1 kg of body weight higher than in girls. With increasing costs of energy for muscular activity.
The main reason, in many ways defines the status of the processes of exchange in children is incomplete development of humoral and nervous regulation mechanisms, which ensure the adaptation of the organism to external environment and a more homogeneous nature of the responses. An expression of immaturity regulatory mechanisms, for example, is the lack of ability of the liver and kidneys for detoxification and cleansing of the body from harmful products, as well as significant variations of osmotic pressure of blood plasma, the tendency of giperkaliemii and other
From the second week of life the child begin to dominate the processes of anabolism over the catabolism. Protein metabolism thus characterized by a positive nitrogen balance and an increased need for protein. The child is required in 4-7 times more amino acids than an adult. The child also has a great need for carbohydrates; at their expense mainly covered caloric needs. The exchange of carbohydrates is closely connected with the exchange of nitrogen. Glucose promotes regeneration of protein, its introduction reduces the concentration of amino acids in the blood. Energy reactions of carbohydrate metabolism are required for full use of fat. Fat is about 1/8 part of the child's body and is the carrier of energy, promotes the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, protects the body from cooling is a structural part of many tissues. Separate unsaturated fatty acids (see Fats) are necessary for growth and normal function of the skin. At birth the content of lipids (see) in the child's blood is reduced, and the content of phosphatides significantly lower than cholesterol. In addition, the children have physiological tendency to ketosis, the occurrence of which may play a role little glycogen stores.
The water content in tissues of high child and is in infants 3/4 body weight and decreases with age. In the allocation of water there are regular daily fluctuations. In healthy infants rises in the second half of the day, reaching a maximum at midnight, falling sharply in the morning. Therefore, weighing more than justified in the morning, which gives a correct understanding of the true weight gain.