The processes of metabolism and energy

The basis of living matter is protein. Therefore, our body needs a continuous flow of protein from the external environment instead of disintegrating in the course of degradation. Unlike plants, we, as already mentioned, not only can create amino acids, but not even enough to turn them into each other. We need ready amino acids, of which the liver produces proteins, related proteins of our fabrics. The main types of food containing protein are meat, fish, milk, eggs. By the nature of their components, i.e., amino acid composition, these proteins similar to ours and the only difference is a different order of amino acids.
The same proteins within the group in full to us, proteins are some plants such as potatoes, soybeans. In the bread, cereals contain proteins that have not everything we needed amino acids. However, if you diversify food, several proteins belonging to the group defective, will give us a complete set of amino acids.
The most important feature of proteins is that they cannot be postponed in the body in reserve. Every day we have to get as much protein as is necessary for metabolism. Coming beyond that protein is still destroyed and this is only fanning the flames of metabolism. The result of this may accelerate aging of the organism. Adult per day requires about 100 grams of protein, with heavy physical labor and sport training - to 130 - 140,
Fats and carbohydrates, in contrast to the proteins in the body can be transformed into each other, as well as formation of residues of proteins. They can be incorporated in reserve. Fats in large numbers, carbohydrates - only in the amount of approximately 600 g, 300 g in liver and 300 g of muscle. Night people physical labor must not exceed 100, and people doing mental work no more. 90 g fat; carbohydrates required in the absence of detectable physical exertion 400, the Latter figure seems unclear great, if you compare it with the required amounts of proteins and fats, and also consider the fact that for building of living matter are mainly proteins and fats and only slight carbohydrates. However, we must remember that, along with plastic there is an exchange of energy. The "light" combustible material are carbohydrates.
The flow of energy necessary for the normal course of metabolism (i.e. for the maintenance of life)and for the manifold activities of the body, primarily the work of muscles. If a person is resting quietly, without any movement, not moving hand nor foot, with an empty stomach and intestine (so that no additional energy consumption), they will need a daily average of about 1,500 calories, or 6300 kilojoules. The SI system of units abolished calories as units of energy, but for the characteristics of the energy processes in the body, they still can be used. So, if peace we need approximately 1500 kcal, in connection with our daily work, especially physical, energy need more. In the case of physical activity of moderate and moderate - to 2500-4000 kcal. So, on self-maintenance life is quite a lot of energy. At a moderate the work is half of the total energy consumption of the body. For clarity, we will specify that 3000 kcal is the energy required to boil 5 gallons of water.
The amount of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, which are listed above provide us about 3500 calories. In the case of heavy physical work (e.g. mowing) the organism is necessary to 7000 kcal, which, naturally, requires an increase in diet. In the cold season, when the heat is increased, it is necessary also to increase the content in the diet of carbohydrates.
So far we have talked exclusively about proteins, fats and carbohydrates. However, besides these, for life is absolutely necessary also the supply of water, mineral salts and vitamins. Water is, as we have said, about 2/3 of the weight of the body. Without it there can not live one cell, because the chemical reactions of metabolism can only go in solutions. Solids do not interact with each other. Even in the bones contain up to 1/4 of water. A day we need 2 - 2,5 liters of water. However, in case of implementation of large muscle load, especially in hot weather, or in the hot shop to drink takes a lot more. Workers of hot shops can for the change to allocate through the sweat glands to 10-12 liters of water. Decrease of liquid you have to fill in, and, as it says in the interview 2, to drink in such cases should be salted water.
Absolutely necessary for us and mineral salts. Every chemical element of Mendeleev table is in the body of their place. Iron is needed for the formation of hemoglobin. Zinc is part of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase and hormone insulin. Phosphate salts of calcium is the basis of the bone tissue. Phosphorus is also a member of ATF - one of the peaks of biochemical evolution, which was mentioned earlier. Iodine is an essential part of the hormone of the thyroid gland, bromine - component hormone cerebral appendage (pituitary), and so on, Finally, in the evolution of all cells of the body, especially the nerve cells, adapted to the particular salt composition of blood plasma, to a certain ratio of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. If you remove from the blood calcium, come convulsions and death. All this shows that entered with food mineral salts vital for us.
Extremely important for the body and vitamins, relatively simple organic compounds produced in animals and plants and play an essential role in the process of exchange of individual tissues. Man cannot produce vitamins and needs to receive them with food. The most important are vitamins a, b, C, D, E, K, PP.
Vitamins a and D are well soluble in fats and therefore are contained in fish oil, animal oil, eggs. Vitamin a, also contained in a slightly different form in carrots, tomatoes, apricots. In the absence of this vitamin first of all suffers vision for reasons we'll say when you touch her work. A symptom of the lack of vitamin a in these cases is the so-called night blindness: the person becomes hard to see at dusk. 2-3 days is enough to drink fish oil, and eyesight will improve dramatically, and then will gradually return to normal. Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium and phosphorus. Therefore, vitamin D deficiency is primarily affects in violation growth and bone formation occurs rickets. However, the defects of the skeletal system is only one of the parties named serious violations. Therefore it is necessary to ensure that children get enough vitamin D. an Important feature of this vitamin is that it can, though in small quantities, be synthesized in our body under the influence of solar rays. Therefore, little children necessarily metered exposure to the sun.
Other vitamins are easily dissolved in water and is contained basically in vegetative products. Vitamins b (which is a whole group of substances) and play an important role in metabolism. They are part of several enzyme systems. The lack of connection of a group of vitamin b cause violations of growth and nutrition of the body; may experience heavy, culminate in death nervous system - the disease beriberi. Because vitamins are contained in plant membranes, we get enough of them already in bread, where in one way or another have shell beans. Than the coarser the grinding, the more is contained in the flour with vitamins of the group. In Asia, where the main food of some population groups were polished rice, In-beriberi met quite often. About vitamin C is the most popular vitamins - lots to say no. All know that the lack of it causes the disease scurvy, which primarily affects the gums, teeth , and blood vessels; vessels become fragile, there is bleeding. Vitamin C found in fresh fruits and vegetables. Especially a lot of it in the hips, needles, currant, tomatoes, lemons. Even a crude potato contains enough vitamin C and a good cure for scurvy.
About vitamin K we have said, when we were analyzing the mechanism of blood clotting. Vitamin PP sister group of vitamin b and necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system, skin, and intestines.
Since the Central laboratory of our bodies and the bodies of animals is the liver, this body has the largest stock of all vitamins. The use of liver for food - remedy any deficiency. It is interesting that in antiquity some primitive tribes, have not abandoned with cannibalism, there was an opinion on the special values of the liver. Was considered, that to eat the liver brave and strong man from defeated enemies - the best way to become strong and brave.