The faint - of sudden short-term loss of consciousness with the disappearance of sensitivity, termination of movements, a significant weakening of breathing and blood circulation caused by the insufficient blood supply to the brain is particularly sensitive to oxygen starvation.
Fainting may occur as a result of strong psychic influence (anxiety, fear), at the sight of blood, resulting in severe pain (for example, by shocks in the epigastric or groin area, coronary thrombosis, renal, hepatic and intestinal colic, and so on), as well as with the rapid transition from horizontal to vertical, long-standing motionless, sometimes after releasing ascitic fluid, rich defecation, after the removal of a large number of pleural fluid, rapid blood loss, when the heat or sun stroke, hyperventilation of the lungs. Most often at the heart of fainting is falling venous tone with a reduced flow of blood to the heart and anemia of the brain. In addition, fainting may be a symptom of acute disorders of the heart after myocardial infarction, paroxysmal tachycardia and paroxysmal fibrillation, when Adams - Stokes syndrome Morgagni (see), heart disease. Prone to fainting people asthenic Constitution, exhausted, has recently suffered severe disease, with high nervous and emotional excitability, especially in adolescence or in the development of climax.
For the faint characteristic suddenly coming dizziness, weakness, numbness of hands and feet, blackouts, noise in the ears, nausea. Appears pale, eyes wander and closed the patient falls. The first pupils are narrowed, then extended, does not react to light. The skin is cold, covered with sweat. Breathing slow and superficial. Heart sounds deaf. Pulse filamentous or not palpated. Peripheral vein savchina. Blood pressure is lowered to 80-90 mm RT. Art. With milder degrees of fainting unconsciousness lasts 1 to 2 minutes or less; in other cases, fainting can be longer. At absence of the expressed changes of cardiovascular system fainting ends happily. Consciousness returned, restored to normal color of skin, normalizes breathing, blood pressure, pulse. Some time after fainting the patient has a weakness, fatigue, malaise.
Treatment. The patient needs to lay with his head bowed, to get out of his loose clothing, indoors to open the Windows for fresh air. Next produce spraying face with cold water, give to sniff a cotton swab moistened with ammonia, vinegar, vinegar, rubbing whiskey these funds. At long swoon subcutaneously injected caffeine-benzoate sodium 1 ml of 10% solution, kordiamin 1 ml or korazol 1 ml of 10% solution, with a slow recovery blood pressure - ephedrine 0.5 ml of 5% solution, mezaton 1 ml of 1% solution. If, despite the measures were fainting fails, resort to artificial respiration (see) by blowing air sick way "the mouth in a mouth" or use appropriate apparatus and indirect heart massage (see the Revival of the body). After you bring the patient in a sense you must investigate the cause of fainting and depending on it to undergo further treatment.
High-rise fainting occurs when flying at high altitude (without oxygen equipment), high-altitude ascents in the chamber when the condition of "high rise" (above 5000 m without oxygen equipment). The emergence of high-rise fainting caused by hypoxia (see) of the brain. Harbingers of high-rise swoon: first, euphoria, then sudden drowsiness, weakness, dizziness, nausea, rapid pulse. Symptoms of high-rise fainting similar to those of usual fainting.
Treatment. During the high-rise fainting you must first give oxygen, then to make possible more rapid descent.
Prevention of high-rise fainting is reduced to the control of serviceability of the oxygen-breathing apparatus, develop skills to use it, the gradual training to high-altitude climbs. Persons at risk of high-rise fainting (pilots, astronauts, climbers, parachutists), need careful scrutiny of health status, as well as training in the use of oxygen devices.