Clinical-physiological substantiation and the mechanisms of the therapeutic action of physical exercises

Pages: 1 2
  • The mechanism restorative influence
  • The mechanism trophic action
  • The mechanism of compensation
  • The mechanism of the normalization functions
  • Rehabilitation
  • Indications and contraindications to the use of therapeutic physical culture
  • Motive activity of man in the form of various forms of muscular activity (work, exercise plays an important role in his life, she was in the process of evolution of biological need. Movements stimulate the growth and development of the child, an adult extend the functionality of all systems of organism, increase its efficiency, in elderly and senile age support body function at its optimal level and slow involutive processes. Muscular activity has a positive effect on psychological and emotional state. Sports, like labour, increase the social significance of a personality.
    Numerous studies indicate that hypokinesia (failure of motor activity) lowers the body's resistance, increases the predisposition to various diseases, i.e., is a risk factor.
    The body of a patient is in adverse conditions not only due to pathological changes, but also due to a forced hypokinesia. Peace during illness necessary: it facilitates the functioning of both the affected organ, and organism, reduces the need for oxygen and nutrients, contributes to more efficient work of internal organs, restores the inhibitory processes in the Central nervous system (CNS). But if the limit physical activity continues for a long time, the reduction of the most important functions of the system becomes stable, weak legal processes in the Central nervous system, worsens the functional state of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, and trophism of the whole organism, are created conditions for the emergence of various complications, recovery is delayed.
    Therapeutic physical exercise improves impaired function, accelerates regeneration, reduces the adverse effects of involuntary hypokinesia. Exercise render different action depending on their selection, techniques, and exercise. The impact of exercises can be General and special. The overall effect is manifested in enhancing all the functions of the body that promotes healing, prevent complications, improve emotional States, to reduce the adverse consequences of forced hypokinesia during illness, and special - aimed at improving disturbed sickness functions of a certain organ or in the development of compensation. The overall effect is non-specific, so different physical exercises for different muscle groups can have the same effect on the body, and the same exercise can be effective in treating various diseases. Special physical exercise can have in some cases a specific effect on the disease process. For example, when muscular atrophy due to immobilization limbs special exercises, involving traffic data muscles, restore their structure and function, metabolism in them; when the joint contractures of the coming changes in the structure of the articular capsule, synovial membrane of cartilage can be restored only by special movements in the joint.
    Depending on the methodology for conducting classes (first of all on the size and consistency of physical activity) is achieved in various therapeutic effect of physical exercise. During the development of the disease using minimal physical activity; use the special exercises are provided directly therapeutic effect, contribute to the formation of the compensation and prevention of complications. In the period recovery by gradually increasing the load from lesson to lesson is reached training effect, which restores the body's adaptation to physical activity, improves the functioning of all body systems, including the function of the affected organ or system. After reaching the maximum possible therapeutic effect in case of chronic diseases, after rehabilitation treatment for acute illness or injury, as well as in old age are applied in moderate exercise, supporting the results of treatment, toning the body, which increases its adaptive capacity.