The dependence of the health of centenarians from the conditions and way of their life

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One of the important factors determining peculiarities of a long-term health of the people is living in rural or urban areas of areas considered. This question deserves special attention, as from the place of residence is largely due to the way of life of the population: the nature and conditions of work, especially food, the specific way of life, habits, behaviors, etc., To assess the long-term health depending on place of residence, this question was included in the program of surveys in all areas mentioned above. Membership of centenarians to the urban or the rural population was defined according to the main places of residence in the past, which gave the opportunity to judge the impact of the still living conditions over a long period of time.
When examining the health of centenarians cities and villages of the Ukrainian SSR is established that among centenarians aged 90 years and over to the health of the citizens and rural residents about the same (the number of practically healthy respectively 23.3 and 22,7%). At the same time, in old age the share of persons with an evaluation of the overall" health "good" higher among the living, life in rural areas (39,2%), and less than among the urban population (32,9%).
Speaking about the peculiarities of the state of health of many years in connection with the place of residence, the following can be noted: 1) as for the men of the influence of the rural environment) life, women - urban; 2) long-lived advantages of living in villages more pronounced than in persons; old age; 3) physical health indicators are somewhat better for the villagers, but the population of the city, and indicators of mental health, on the contrary, it is the citizens; 4) industrial area and Kiev are indicators of the health status of people who have lived most of my life in the villages, Western region - in cities.
Comparison of health indicators of centenarians cities and villages shows considerable variability not only in urban areas (as might be expected), but
the rural areas. So, if among citizens-men Ukrainian SSR aged 80-89 years maximum and minimum values of the number of persons with well-preserved ability to look after themselves constitute 66.7 and 53,6% (the difference is about 20%), and among women of the same age - 60,5 and 42.5% (the difference is 30%), rural residents corresponding indicators are 69,3 and 42.0% for men (difference of 40%). 61,6 and 33.7%for females (a difference of 45%). The highest indices were observed in the Western and southern regions, the lowest - in Kyiv.
It is clear that the division of the population into urban and rural conditionally, especially when evaluating the health of the urban population, as differences in the size of urban settlements and depend on the conditions of life are considerable. In this regard, further in-depth study of the long-term health of urban residents was carried out based on the size of cities. Our research showed that the decrease in the proportion of healthy among those aged 80 years and above clearly shows increasing urban settlements: in small towns (with population up to 50,000 people), it is 34%, in medium-sized (from 50 000 to 500 000) -32%, and in large cities (500 thousand population)-29%. On the other hand, in inverse relationship is the percentage of persons with poor health ("old" and "seriously ill"): it increases with decreasing size of the town (respectively to 7.2; 9,9 and 10.9%). In rural areas of the world with the good and the bad General state of health, respectively 34%and 12%.
The application of the second evaluation criterion - factor Divemaster (share of persons 90 years and older among the total number of persons aged 80 years and over) gives the same results with decreasing scale of cities increased relative to the number of centenarians (respectively to 7.7; 12,2 and 16.2%). The same conclusion can come to study conditions of the main place of residence in the past: among the many years of the rural residents are more frequent than among those age.