General survey pregnant

Pages: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Objective examination usually begins with an examination of the body of measurement of height, weight and so on
The comprehensive examination shall normally be in the position of the woman standing, because it is better able to consider the shape and profile of the body, the structure of the skeleton and pelvis.
During the inspection revealed the structure and development of the chest, stomach shape, degree of closing the hip, the skin and the presence or absence of it striae gravidarum, the severity of which describes the elastic properties of tissue, development and distribution of subcutaneous fat, muscle tone system, skin pigmentation and the development of secondary sexual characteristics (nature and degree of development of the mammary glands, the distribution of body hair etc).
These external features can be described features of the body of this woman, i.e., to determine whether it is correct or there are deviations that may affect the course of pregnancy and childbirth.
At the same time it is necessary to make an examination of the cardiovascular system (percussion and auscultation of the heart, measurement of blood temporal and brachial pressure, sochetanie heartbeat and so on), nervous system, lungs and other organs.
Clinic shows the features of a physiological and pathological processes in women of different constitutional types. The individuality of the body is determined, first of all, by peculiarities of his nervous system. On the formation of the constitutional type important influenced by environmental factors. The relationship of an organism with its environment largely at the expense of specific reactions of the nervous system. Under the influence of external factors first of all change the functional properties of the organism, while the morphological changes of the organs are the next stage arising on the basis of new functional relations. Consequently, the characteristic physique is included in the definition of constitutional types only as an additional link.
Thus, under the Constitution of man should understand the state of the reactive nature of the organism, arising on the basis of hereditary and acquired properties (P. D. Horizons).
Body type over the lifetime of the person to a certain extent may vary depending on environmental conditions, age, nutrition, employment, status, functions of the endocrine glands and other factors. Consider that the Constitution of man is determined mainly by the peculiarities of metabolism in the body.
Numerous clinical observations proved that the constitutional features affect the entire body; they are manifested not only in the external morphological characteristics, the flow velocity of the physiological reactions of the body and in their intensity, but also in the inclinations to the occurrence of those or other diseases, celebrated in pregnant women.
Obstetrician-gynecologist should be aware of the constitutional type of woman, in order to consider specific to the type of features and properties, and the main thing - to a certain extent to influence the latter in the right direction by rational preventive measures.
The most simple and convenient in clinical work is a classification which includes two mutually opposite extreme and (asthenic and giperstenichesky) and one in between, the so-called middle (normostenichesky) type (Fig. 1) characterizes constitutional types not only the morphological properties, but also the peculiarities of metabolism.


Fig. 1. Constitutional types of women.
and - infantile; b - giperstenichesky; in - normostenichesky; e - asthenic.

Women asthenic type there is a high growth in narrow trunk. The backbone narrow and light. There kyphosis in the cervical-thoracic spine, causing the body bent forward. Inclination angle of the pelvis - 44,8°, lumbar lordosis - 4.3 cm, weight index low. Women of this type thin, often very thin. Face the most part, long and narrow. Shoulders are narrow and straight. Neck is long and slim. The blades are separated from the chest. The chest is long and narrow, epigastric angle is sharp, waist high, X edge mobile (costa dicima fluctuans), a sign of Shtiller. Belly small size, the lower part of it more than the top. Closing her thighs incomplete. The skin is thin and soft, dry and pale. Subcutaneous fatty tissue and muscles are weak. Body hair, pubic and underarm pits developed for the most part poorly.